Activity of the humoral type of adaptive immune system in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis and type 2 diabetes
Summary. Systemic changes in diabetes can cause local pathological processes, including those from the innate immune system and the adaptive humoral immune response, involved in the development of periodontitis. Therefore, at this stage of the study, the need arose for a deeper study of the mechanisms of development and course of chronic generalized periodontitis in the presence of diabetes mellitus.
The aim of the study – to elucidate the nature of the reaction of the humoral link of adaptive immunity in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and their combination.
Materials and Methods. A survey was conducted of 20 practically healthy individuals (control group), 36 patients with a clinically established diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), 32 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP), and 32 patients with combined diabetes and CGP (group 4). The content of the main classes of immunoglobulins IgA, IgG and IgM was determined according to G. Manchini, the level of circulating immune complexes (CEC) was determined according to the method of V. Gashkov in the modification of Yu. Grinevich.
Results and Discussions. The level of Ig A and Ig G in the experimental groups was significantly higher relative to the control group. The Ig M level in group 2 was statistically significantly lower by 1.2 times, and in groups 3 and 4 it was significantly higher by 1.7 and 1.2 times, respectively. The fact that type 2 diabetes complicates the course of periodontitis is also evidenced by the concentration of immune complexes. In this case, the lowest level of CEC was detected in the group of patients with CGP, and the highest – with a combination of pathologies.
Conclusion. In chronic generalized periodontitis in the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the humoral link of the adaptive immune system undergoes significant changes, as evidenced by an increase in blood serum concentrations of class A, M, G immunoglobulins and circulating immune complexes.
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