• I. D. Khan Assistant Professor, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital, New Delhi 110010, India http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9824-8711
  • B. Asima Resident Nuclear Medicine, Army Hospital Research and Referral, New Delhi 110010, India
  • Sh. A. Khan Assistant Professor, Psychiatry, Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital, New Delhi 110010, India




Golden-hour, operations throughput, Mass-gathering medicine, Turnaround-time, Definitive-care, population-based approach



Golden-hour, a time-tested concept for trauma-care, involves a systems approach encompassing healthcare, logistics, geographical, environmental and temporal variables. Golden-hour paradigm in mass-gathering-medicine such as the Hajj-pilgrimage entwines along healthcare availability, accessibility, efficiency and interoperability; expanding from the patient-centric to public-health centric approach. The realm of mass-gathering-medicine invokes an opportunity for incorporating operations-throughput as a determinant of golden-hour for overall capacity-building and interoperability.


Golden-hour was evaluated during the Indian-Medical-Mission operations for Hajj-2016; which established, operated and coordinated a strategic network of round-the-clock medical operations. Throughput was evaluated as deliverables/time, against established Standard-Operating-Procedures for various clinical, investigation, drug-dispensing and patient-transfer algorithms. Patient encounter-time, waiting-time, turnaround-time were assessed throughout echeloned healthcare under a patient-centric healthcare-delivery model. Dynamic evaluation was carried out to cater for variation and heterogeneity.


Massive surge of 3,94,013 patients comprising 2,25,103 males (57.1%) and 1,68,910 females (42.9%) overwhelmed the throughput capacities of outpatient attendance, pharmacy, laboratory, imaging, ambulance, referrals and documentation. There was delay in attendance, suspicion, diagnosis and isolation of patients with communicable infections. The situational-analysis of operations-throughput highlights wasted turnaround-time due to mobilization of medical-team, diverting critical healthcare resources away from emergency situations.


Time being a crucial factor in the complexity of medical-care, operations-throughput remains an important determinant towards interoperability of bottlenecks, thereby being a determinant of golden-hour in mass-gathering-medicine. Early transportation of patient to definitive-care reduces treatment initiation-time, notwithstanding logistics of communication, evacuation, terrain and weather being deterministic in outcome. Golden-hour needs to be emphasized under a population-based approach targeting the clientele towards administering first-aid and reaching out to hospital within the golden-hour.

Author Biography

I. D. Khan, Assistant Professor, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital, New Delhi 110010, India

Assistant Professor, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital, New Delhi 110010, India


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How to Cite

Khan, I. D., Asima, B., & Khan, S. A. (2017). OPERATIONS THROUGHPUT AS A DETERMINANT OF GOLDEN-HOUR IN MASS-GATHERING MEDICINE. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 3(1), 53–59. https://doi.org/10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2017.1.7804