International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr <p><em>International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research (IJMMR) is the peer-reviewed international journal published semiannually. The overall goal of the IJMMR is to promote medical research and to serve as a platform dedicated to increasing the exchange of experience and collaboration in all fields of medical research, including dentistry and pharmacology. IJMMR accepts original research, reviews, commentaries and letters to the editor in the areas of medicine and medical research covering non-clinical and clinical subjects, population health sciences and public health topics.</em><br><em><strong>ISSN 2414-9985 (Online), ISSN 2413-6077 (Print)</strong></em></p> I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University en-US International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research 2413-6077 <p>Authors who sent their manuscript to International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research agree to the following terms:</p> <p>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> CC-BY-NC that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Лицензия Creative Commons" /></a></p> <p>2. Authors able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONCURRENT CHEMORADIATION USING PACLITAXEL IN TWO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL SUBTYPES (SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA/ADENOCARCINOMA) OF UNRESECTABLE NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12253 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Lung cancer is still a global burden and with rising population and increasing life expectancy the incidence of lung cancer is still on the rise.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">To compare the treatment response and toxicity of weekly paclitaxel in locally advanced unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), when administered concurrently with external beam radiation to the chest in two different histopathological types – adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> A prospective randomised control trial was conducted in 60 NSCLC patients who were divided into two arms; adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma arm. All patients were treated with chemoradiation with concurrent paclitaxel 60 mg/m<sup>2</sup>. Data were evaluated with SPSS version 21.0 for windows with p-value &lt;0.05.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Haematological toxicity was the most common side effects evident from the third week of chemotherapy. At the end of 1 month of treatment, two (6.7%) patients had complete response in Arm A and one (3.3%) patient had complete response in Arm B. One (3.3%) patient had disease progression in Arm A and two patients progressed in Arm B. At 7 months post treatment three (10%) patients had complete response in both Arm A and Arm B. Four (13.3%) patients had disease progression in Arm A and ten (33.4%) patients progressed in Arm B.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Paclitaxel can be used as an alternative chemotherapeutic agent to the standard cisplatin. However, further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm the findings.</span></p> D. L. Nongrum Y. S. Devi S. Mohanty L. J. Singh K. Baidya D. Chyrmang H. K. Rai Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 37 46 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12253 VITAMIN D3 IN TREATMENT OF OSTEOPENIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN WITH GROWTH DISORDERS https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12474 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The efficacy of vitamin D3 agents for impaired growth of children of different cause was studied in the research. A positive effect on bone mineralization and calcium-phosphorus metabolism was evidenced. The treatment and prophylaxis charts using this drug for osteopenic syndrome are developed for children with hypothalamic-pituitary dwarfism, subdwarfism and dwarfism of constitutional genesis.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim of the research is to study the effect of calcimine and vitamin D3 in cases of impaired bone mineral density in children aged 6-18 years old with growth retardation of the hypothalamic-pituitary genesis, subdwarfism and dwarfism of constitutional origin.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The study involved 25 children, aged 6-18 years old with growth retardation: hypothalamic-pituitary (10 children), subdwarfism (5 children) and dwarfism of constitutional origin (10 children). The control group consisted of 20 children. The structural and functional state of bone tissue was studied using a two-photon X-ray densitometer “Lunar”. In the study of calcium-phosphorus homeostasis, the level of calcium and the level of phosphorus in the blood serum were determined. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were also studied as a marker for bone formation.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">In the examined children, there was a significant calcium deficiency at the level of the vertebrae L1–L4. The calcium content in L1 was 72.8%, L2 – 75.7%, L3 – 81.2%, L4 – 80.1%, which significantly differed from bone density in healthy children of a similar age and body weight. It was also revealed that in children diagnosed with growth retardation of the pituitary genesis, bone rarefaction was diagnosed in 100% of cases, while with subdwarfism and dwarfism of constitutional genesis these indicators were 43% and 24%, respectively.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">. A differentiated choice of vitamin D3 treatment, depending on the degree of osteopenia in children, allows adjusting the calcium metabolism and preventing osteoporosis in children with stunted growth. Vitamin D3 in the complex treatment of osteoporosis in children with growth impairment of different genesis normalizes calcium-phosphorus homeostasis, which increases bone mineral density and, therefore, reduces osteoporotic changes by stopping leaching of calcium from bones.</span></p> N. Yu. Shcherbatiuk Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 26 29 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12474 CURRENT TRENDS IN PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTI-MIGRAINE DRUGS IN PATIENTS OF MIGRAINE AT A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12636 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">An inappropriate prescribing pattern of antimigraine drugs by doctors may often encourage inappropriate self-medication by patients because of the asymmetry of medical information.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The study is aimed to assess the</span> <span lang="EN-US">current trends in prescribing patterns of anti-migraine drugs, rationality of prescription, and pattern of migraine severity in patients of migraine. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">A cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital. All the prescribing details including patient’s demographic details, diagnosis, details of drug therapy (drug name, dose, duration, and frequency) were recorded. Rationality of prescription was assessed using the WHO core drug prescribing indicators and the pattern of severity of migraine was assessed using MIDAS scoring system. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Out of 85 patients, 71 were female (83.5%), mostly around 21-30 years of age, and 27 (31.7%) patients had other comorbidities. Naproxen was the most commonly used NSAID for termination of acute migraine attack (15.3 %). The most common drugs prescribed for prophylaxis included beta adrenergic blockers (Propranolol, 14.66%), antidepressants (Amitriptyline, 9.33% and Fluoxetine 3.33%)</span><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">, </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">and antipsychotics (Prochlorperazine, 4.66%). Domperidone (17.30%) was the most commonly prescribed antiemetic. Prescription of triptans was low (2.66%) with Rizatriptan as the most commonly prescribed triptan. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The current study revealed that further improvements are required in prescribing practices especially in average number of drugs per prescription, prescription of drugs with generic names, and prescription of drugs of the essential drugs list. </span></p> G. Soni S. Jain P. Rathi P. Goswami Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 5 14 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12636 RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF GENDER-AGE STRUCTURE AND COMORBID PATHOLOGY OF PATIENTS WITH VIRAL AND BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA ASSOCIATED WITH COVID-19 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12675 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">In December 2019 first case of COVID-19 was first registered in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. This infectious disease primarily causes respiratory tract infection, but can also affect the other organs and systems. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> In this study, the features of the gender-age structure and comorbid pathology of the patients with viral and bacterial pneumonia who were treated in inpatient department in the period from September to December 2020 are summarized.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The research was conducted in Ternopil Municipal Hospital No. 3, Ternopil, Ukraine. Clinical cases of 262 patients with viral and bacterial pneumonia associated with COVID-19 were studied retrospectively. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Both men and women has been affected by this pathology in Ternopil region with the same frequency in contrast with the established fact that men are less resistant to infections that women. Most of the patients ranged in age from 51 to 70 years, however, a fair number of patients were over the age of 70 years. Concomitant pathology was diagnosed in 65.5% of the patients with coronavirus infection. Coronary heart disease (34.5%) is leading in the structure of comorbid conditions. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> During the COVID-19 pandemic, timely diagnosis and medical care of the patients over 50 years of age is of great importance. The analysis of concomitant pathology proves that the people with cardiovascular pathology are in the increased risk group.</span></p> L. B. Romanyuk I. R. Volch N. Y. Kravets T. I. Pyatkovskyy O. M. Zahrychuk Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 15 19 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12675 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SEASONAL VARIATION OF APPENDICITIS – A SINGLE CENTER RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM NORTH-EAST INDIA https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12423 <p><strong>Background. </strong>Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency presenting in emergency department, and appendectomy is one of the most common surgeries. There is a wide variation in the incidence of acute appendicitis reported for different countries, different regions, race, sex, age and also seasons.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiological trend and the seasonal variation of appendicitis in the northeast region of India.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>It was a retrospective hospital-based study conducted in Jan 2016 – Dec 2020 at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in the northeast region of India. The patient data were obtained from the Medical Record Department of the hospital and the data regarding the weather was obtained from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and the website www.worldweather.com. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 24.0, and the seasonal variation was studied using Kruskal Wallis test.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Acute appendicitis affected both the sexes equally with a marginal higher incidence in males. It also had higher peak during the second and third decade of life in both the sexes. The incidence of acute appendicitis was high in the pre-monsoon and monsoon season with peak in the monsoon season.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>s</strong><strong>.</strong> Acute appendicitis is more common during the pre-monsoon and monsoon season, a period known for humidity, high incidence of bacterial and viral infections.</p> R. Kumar T. B. Singh R. Pandey S. Bhalla O. Singh Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 20 25 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12423 DRUG THERAPY FOR PROTEIN COMPOSITION CHANGES OF BLOOD IN HYPERTENSION AND IN CASES OF COMORBIDITY https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12682 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The binding function of serum albumin (BFSA) and its changes in various diseases in recent years are of interest to researchers. Hypertension (HT) in combination with comorbidities, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can contribute to BFSA. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between quantitative changes in BFSA, protein fractions and indicators of endogenous intoxication (EI) in HT in combination with NASH and type 2 diabetes and to suggest drug therapy of the disorders revealed.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> 123 patients with stage 2 HT and degree 2-3 arterial hypertension were examined; they were divided into three groups: group 1 included 28 patients without concomitant diseases, 2 – 48 patients with concomitant NASH, 3 – 47 patients with NASH and type 2 diabetes. Groups 3 and 4 were divided into two subgroups (A and B): patients of the subgroup A received basic HT therapy and additionally Antral® 200 mg 3 times a day for 60 days, B – only basic HT therapy. All patients underwent a standard clinical examination, as well as for BFSA, total protein, albumin, globulins and albumin-globulin ratio, medium mass molecules (MMM) at 280 and 254 nm and erythrocyte intoxication index (EII). The comparison group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> It was found out that Antral® in patients with HT in combination with NASH and with NASH and type 2 diabetes with a statistically significant decrease in BFSA, total protein and albumin, as well as with increased indicators of EI (MSM<sub>254</sub>, MSM<sub>280</sub> and EII) caused significant improvement in BFSA, increase of total protein, serum albumin, reduce of MSM<sub>254</sub>, MSM<sub>280</sub>, EII and strengthening of all correlations.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Antral® therapy in patients with HT in combination with NASH as well as NASH and type 2 diabetes causes significant increase in BFSA, serum protein fractions and decreases EI.</span></p> Yu. R. Dzordzo S. M. Andreychyn Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 30 36 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12682 REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12556 <p><strong>Background. </strong>Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are under a high risk of post-operative reductions in respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function as well as lowered functional capacity. In-hospital physical inactivity and inappropriate rehabilitation increases the chances for development of these complications and affects patients’ future independence in daily routine. Cardiac rehabilitation is crucial in preventing complications and assisting the early function recovery. However, despite the evidences for its benefits and strong guideline recommendations, the uptake of cardiac rehabilitation remains poor.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> this study is aimed at promotion of cardiac rehabilitation and sharing successful experience of using it.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Post-surgical treatment and rehabilitation of 387 patients with cardiovascular pathology in the Department of Vascular and Cardiac Surgery of Municipal Non-Commercial Enterprise “Ternopil Regional Clinical Hospital” of Ternopil Regional Council has been analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The experience of successful post-surgical treatment and rehabilitation allowed establishing the basic approaches to perioperative management of patients with cardiovascular surgical pathology. Key principles include minimized ICU stay and artificial ventilation time, early verticalization and beginning of physical activities, early removed drainage tubes, tracheobronchial tree drainage, nutritional balance, lymphatic drainage massage, application of elastic jersey on the lower extremities, early transferring to the surgery ward and returning to the regular daily activities, circumstantial health education, complex work of a multidisciplinary team.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>s</strong><strong>.</strong> This set of rehabilitation measures helps prevent complications after cardiac surgery as well as provide a faster patient’s daily routine.</p> T. V. Romaniuk V. S. Moroz S. M. Maslii Z. V. Vivchar Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 47 50 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12556 EVALUATION OF IMMUNOBLOT RESULTS FOR DETERMINATION OF ANTIBODIES TO LYME DISEASE PATHOGENS IN CHILDREN OF TERNOPIL REGION https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12657 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Lyme disease (LD) is a multisystem disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and other similar tick-borne Borrelia.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim of the research was to compare the results of the serological examination of children with different forms of Lyme disease. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">We observed</span> <span lang="EN-US">the group of children (n=178) aged 1 to 14 years who were bitten by ticks. The control group consisted of 30 healthy children. Ticks were identified using a stereomicroscopic SEO system which included a stereomicroscope, a colour digital camera and a photoadapter. B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzeliі and B. garinii), B. miyamotoi, A. phagocytophilum DNA in blood were determined by real-time PCR. Baseline investigations related to clinical and immunological studies, including ELISA and Immunoblot, were performed.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The survey covered 178 child parents bitten by ticks. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii), B. miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were identified. Serological results in children with different forms of Lyme disease were compared.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">It is established that B. burgdorferi sensu lato; B. miyamotoi; and A. phagocytophilum are pathogens that cause erythema migrans in children. The presence of specific IgG (only positive results) to B. burgdorferi s.l. by immunoblot was confirmed in 83.8% of individuals who had positive and intermediate results in the ELISA test.</span></p> S. O. Nykytyuk S. I. Klymnyuk I. M. Klishch S. S. Levenets Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 76 82 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12657 HISTOPATHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12595 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Recently there has been a lot of discussion about the terminology and classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. The WHO has recommended a change of terminology and classification of these tumours. In 2019 a significant update was done in the WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumours of GIT in which neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are all considered high-grade tumours. Previously, grade 1 and 2 tumours were regarded as neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and grade 3 neoplasms as NECs. The new classification avoids confusion between these two clinically and molecularly distinct notions. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim of the research was to study GI neuroendocrine neoplasms and classify them as per location and Histopathological classification of GI neuroendocrine neoplasms according to the recent WHO classification. To use IHC whenever and wherever required for categorization of GI NET’s.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Over a period of 15 years, a total of 85 cases of neuroendocrine neoplasms of GIT were studied. The histopathological material of patients was reviewed and histopathological diagnosis confirmed. Paraffin embedded tissue blocks were used to study and review the material. Sections from tissue blocks were stained. Five-micron sections were cut and stained. The sections were stained using DAKO LSAB-2® system HRP glass slides coated with 0.5% poly-lysine.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Out of 85 cases 40 involved male and 45 female patients. The mean age was 46.4 years; age range 9-85 years. In our study, appendix 24 (28.23%) and stomach 11 (12.95%) were the commonest sites of primary involvement followed by colon (10), ileum (10), duodenum (5), GE junction (5), jejunum (3), oesophagus (2), rectum (2) and gall bladder (1). Metastasis to the liver were observed in 12 patients with known and unknown primary diagnosis. Based on the latest WHO classification 5 patients were classified under NECs and the rest under NETs. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are uncommon malignancies of GIT. Appendix followed by stomach was the most common anatomical site. NET Grade 1 was the most common histological type. IHC markers NSE, Synaptophysin and Chromogranin can be used in diagnosis of NETs.</span></p> F. Abbas A. Beigh M. Khuroo S. Farooq N. Khuroo S. Tazeen Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 83 90 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12595 THE EFFECT OF MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE ON THE MICROFLORA OF THE COLON https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12516 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Nowadays, much attention is paid to enterosorption methods that allow cleansing the internal organs and removing extraneous substances out of the body of a sick person.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim of the research was</span> <span lang="EN-US">to study the effect of microcrystalline cellulose on the microflora of the large intestine.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The study was performed on 50 white laboratory Wistar rats weighing 180-270 g, which were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was daily administered with microcrystalline cellulose at a dose of 500 mg/kg. The study followed ethical standards and recommendations for the humanization of work with laboratory animals according to the “European Convention for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other purposes” (Strasbourg, 1986, 2010), as well as the requirements of the Commission on Bioethics of I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University (Minutes No. 66, dated November 01, 2021). The first group involved the intact rats on standard diet, the second – the rats, which received normal feeding of microcrystalline cellulose.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> In the feces of the experimental white rats treated with microcrystalline cellulose, the level of Escherichia coli in the large intestine decreased by 22 and 25%. The number of these microorganisms increased by 20% in 7 days and by 14% in 14 days. The content of epidermal staphylococci in the stool decreased by 10% on the 7<sup>th</sup> day of administration. Microcrystalline cellulose increased the number of Staphylococcus aureus by 12%, but decreased the number of enterococci in the feces by 28%. In 7-14 days of the experiment, the content of these bacteria did not change significantly in the colon. In relation to anaerobic microorganisms – bacteroides and clostridia, this supplement caused a slight increase in the number of bacteroides – by 8.64% and the number of clostridia – by 11.54% on the 14<sup>th</sup> day. The content of fungi of the Candida genus on the 7<sup>th</sup> and 14<sup>th</sup> day increased by 8.3%.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">In the 2<sup>nd</sup> period of the study, the microbiome of intestinal contents worsened: the process of dysbacteriosis increased, which was manifested by a significant increase in the number of Proteus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobes (bacteroides, clostridia) and Candida spp., as well as decreased Escherichia coli and Enterococci.</span></p> D. B. Koval H. R. Malyarchuk O. O. Levenets Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 91 96 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12516 DENTAL ASSISTANCE TO MILITARY PERSONNEL OF THE ARMED FORCES OF UKRAINE https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12488 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> At present, the formation of military units of the Armed Forces of Ukraine during mobilization takes place with underlying high dental morbidity of the population of the country. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The aim of this research was to study dental health of the personnel of military units and the problem of providing dental care to military personnel according to the analysis of modern scientific literature.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The following research methods were used to analyse dental care for military personnel, namely: bibliographic, analytical, systems approach.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Hygiene of the oral cavity is mandatory in military units and should be routinely carried out. It was found that the main reason for seeking dental care among military personnel was treatment of major dental diseases. A low number of military personnel seeking for dental preventive examination was noted that proved a low level of primary prevention among this category of people.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Therefore, the obtained data on the state of dental health of military personnel require a purposeful approach to organization of prophylaxis and prevention of complications through professional hygiene and early prosthetics.</span></p> O. Ya. Lavrin O. V. Avdeev N. Ye. Romanjuk O. A. Bedenyuk Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 51 57 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12488 CURRENT DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DRY SOCKET https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12486 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Tooth extraction is the most common surgical intervention in the outpatient practice of a dental surgeon. In most cases, bone wound healing is uncomplicated. However, in some patients the course of healing is complicated by acute inflammatory process of dry socket (alveolar osteitis), the frequency of which increases with increasing trauma of surgery. In dentally healthy patients with typical tooth extraction, dry socket occurs in 2.55%, with difficult – in 9.84%, with atypical extraction of the lower wisdom tooth – in 31.03% of cases. In the presence of diabetes, the incidence of dry socket with typical removal is much higher and according to various authors it is 9.7-13.5%. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim of the research was to study the publications and their analysis on the current diagnosis, prevention and treatment of patients with dry socket. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Scientific sources were the articles in world periodicals on dental surgery and therapy, microbiology as well as some electronic resources and patents. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> At present, many techniques, methods, schemes, compositions for treatment of various forms of dry socket are established. Most often, antibacterial drugs or their combinations with other drugs are used. However, antibacterial drugs do not always have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect due to the high resistance of the oral microflora. In these cases, contemporary drugs in the form of a composition with long-term antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic action are rational.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The action of a Flupetsal composition, which contains antimicrobial and immunomodulatory drug flurenizide, was clinically proven for treatment of patients with dry socket; the properties of the available ingredients provide a high disinfectant effect, prevent development of inflammation in the tissues and its transition to purulence. A contemporary effective method of treating patients with dry socket is carried out according to the developed method. </span></p> N. S. Hutor Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 58 65 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12486 BONE TISSUE METABOLISM AND CHANGES IN THE ORAL CAVITY IN REDUCED FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE THYROID GLAND https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/12426 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Decreased functional activity of the thyroid gland leaves affects many organs and systems as well as bone tissue, pathological changes of which in the oral cavity are most often observed in periodontitis. However, the relationship between thyroid hypofunction and periodontitis or other inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity is still not confirmed.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim of the review was to study the published information and analyse bone metabolism and its relationships between autoimmune thyroiditis and oral diseases.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The</span> <span lang="EN-US">articles in foreign periodicals on endocrinology, pathophysiology, dental surgery and therapy were the scientific sources for research.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Understanding the mechanisms of bone metabolism under the action of thyroid hormones is an important aspect of treatment and diagnostic process, as local treatment of dental pathology without reducing the impact on systemic factors ultimately does not have any positive result. Decreased functional activity of the thyroid gland leads to homeostasis imbalance in the body. The thyroid hormones are important for bone metabolism, publications on periodontitis incidence in cases of autoimmune pathology of the thyroid gland are the most common. However, despite the number of studies, most authors agree that they are currently insufficient to clearly establish a causal relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease and maxillofacial disorders.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The study expands our knowledge, but there is still a need for further detailed studies that would clearly define the mechanisms of development of the disorders of the oral bone tissues and its relationships with autoimmune pathology of the thyroid gland.</span></p> О. V. Skochylo S. I. Boitsanyuk N. O. Tverdokhlib Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 7 2 66 75 10.11603/ijmmr.2413-6077.2021.2.12426