International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr <p><em>International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research (IJMMR) is the peer-reviewed international journal published semiannually. The overall goal of the IJMMR is to promote medical research and to serve as a platform dedicated to increasing the exchange of experience and collaboration in all fields of medical research, including dentistry and pharmacology. IJMMR accepts original research, reviews, commentaries and letters to the editor in the areas of medicine and medical research covering non-clinical and clinical subjects, population health sciences and public health topics.</em><br><em><strong>ISSN 2414-9985 (Online), ISSN 2413-6077 (Print)</strong></em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Authors who sent their manuscript to International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research agree to the following terms:</p> <p>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> CC-BY-NC that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Лицензия Creative Commons"></a></p> <p>2. Authors able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> ijmmr@tdmu.edu.ua (Prof. Mykhaylo Korda) kovbasyuk_i@tdmu.edu.ua (Ihor Kovbasyuk) Fri, 28 Feb 2020 02:55:29 +0200 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 STOOL ANTIGEN (HPSA) TEST IN DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION AMONG ADULT DYSPEPTIC PATIENTS IN TRIPOLI, LIBYA https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10334 <p><strong>Background</strong>. Helicobacter pylori is the most common infection in the world. Relationship between H. pylori and dyspepsia was confirmed by many studies, it has been strongly associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. In that respect, several invasive and noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection were utilized<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between dyspepsia and the positivity of H.&nbsp;pylori stool antigen test, to compare this test with serological IgG test.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. 125 adult patients were randomly selected from gastroenterology units of Mediterranean and Tajurah clinics in Tripoli. Stool samples were taken for detection of H. pylori antigen by enzyme immunoassay. Blood samples for detection of anti-H.&nbsp;pylori IgG antibodies were taken. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. 125 dyspeptic patients: 47 male and 78 female, aged 18-83 years old were examined. 80 patients were infected by H. pylori that was proved by a positive stool test, 88 had a positive IgG test. The prevalence was higher in the patients aged 28-47 years old. There was substantial relation to age, marital status and economic risk factors; there was no association between H. pylori and gender, sources of drinking water, living standards, smoking, family history of peptic ulcer, drug consumption, and blood groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Relatively high rates of detection by HpSA prove that stool testing might be a reliable, simple, inexpensive, and non-invasive alternative test ащк detectшщт of H. pylori, diagnosing active infection and confirming cure. However IgG test has a low sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy compare to the HpSA test. Thus it can be used for screening purposes.</p> G.M. Huwiage, A. A. Nami, A. H. Akadh Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10334 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 18:11:08 +0200 PRIMARY LARYNGEAL ASPERGILLOSIS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10456 <p><strong>Background.</strong> Aspergillus is an inherently ubiquitous, weakly pathogenic fungus causing opportunistic infections. It is very rarely localized in the larynx, although laryngeal Aspergillosis may develop in the immunocompromised patients including those with leukaemia and severe aplastic anaemia.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The aim of the research was to explore the primary laryngeal Aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient thru a case report.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>A case report of primary laryngeal Aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient is presented.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> A male patient of 40 years old, presenting with chronic worsening hoarseness, was found to have a smooth, white spheroid submucosal growth on left vocal cord with preserved bilateral cord movements on videostroboscopy. Histopathological examination of vocal cord growth revealed squamous epithelium containing septate hyphae with acute angle dichotomous branching pattern consistent with Aspergillus. Voice improved after a four-week course of oral itraconazole 200 mg/day. Post therapy follow up of 24 months was unremarkable.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Primary laryngeal Aspergillosis develops in the immunocompetent patients. Iatrogenic, vocal abuse, occupation and lifestyle factors may be contributory. Optimal diagnosis and management mandates a high index of suspicion.</p> K.S. Rajmohan, I. D. Khan, U. Kapoor, S. A. Hashmi, R. M. Gupta, S. Sen, G. L. Nair, K. K. Singh, K. Tandel, M. Malik Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10456 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 18:00:48 +0200 HANSEN’S DISEASE DIAGNOSED AFTER ANTI-CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10458 <p><strong>Background</strong>. Leprosy or Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous disease involving predominantly skin, peripheral nerves and nasal mucosa but capable of affecting any tissue or organ. Histoid leprosy is a very rare well-defined clinicopathological variant of multibacillary lepromatous leprosy, which is very difficult to diagnose due to different specific clinical and histopathological findings that mimic a fibromatous disorder. Histoid leprosy occurs generally after treatment failure and sometimes de novo.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The aim of the study was to explore histoid leprosy throughout a case report.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. A case report of histoid leprosy diagnosed after cancer chemotherapy is presented.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. A 25-year-old healthy male presented with multiple skin coloured, discrete, well defined, painless papules and nodules scattered over nape of neck, right side of the trunk and both arms along with numbness as well as tingling sensation over both the arms and trunk. It was a case of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT), left testis, diagnosed and treated with a high inguinal orchidectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy in 2016. Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) stain for Acid Fast Bacilli (Mycobacterium leprae) – a modified Fite stain method showed numerous acid-fast bacilli. Histopathological diagnosis of Hansen’s disease (Histoid) was conducted. The patient was admitted and started on triple drug multi-bacillary multi-drug therapy (MB-MDT). A remarkable improvement was noticed in the lesion status within one month of institution of the therapy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Histoid leprosy is a discrete infrequent form of multibacillary leprosy with distinctive clinical, bacteriological and histomorphological features. Histopathologic examination with modified Fite stain is still the mainstay of diagnosis.</p> S. A. Hashmi, G. S. Bhadauria, K. S. Rajmohan, I. D. Khan, A. Gupta, D. Mitra, R. M. Gupta, M. Rahman, U. Kapoor, S. K. Singh, F. M. H. Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10458 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 18:05:08 +0200 SOME METABOLIC PROCESSES IN THE PATIENTS WITH LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES OF MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10459 <p><strong>Background. </strong>Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) leads to disturbance of various metabolic processes significant in pathogenesis of the maintaining of long-term consequences after it.</p> <p><strong>The objective</strong> of the research was to analyse changes in the activity of some membrane-associated enzyme markers, which are involved in different redox reactions, reflecting main metabolic processes.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Forty-seven patients with long-term consequences of mTBI, thirty controls were enrolled. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were evaluated in sera by gas-liquid chromatograph and calorimetric methods.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The study revealed significant changes in metabolic processes observed for alkaline phosphatase and LDH, which were the indicators of membrane and redox processes disturbances, acidosis severity and impaired energy cell metabolism. The averages of LDH level was 662.7 versus 381.9 U/L, in the controls. The disease progression was followed by directly proportional LDH increase reaching very high values in the patients with disease duration more than 15 years (mean ±SD 144.6±16.3 versus 82.6±8.4 U/L, controls p&lt;0.05). The long-term consequences of mTBI were characterized by statistically significant decrease of alkaline phosphatase and positive dependence (p&lt;0.05) of it (r=+0.48) on the disease duration with the averages of alkaline phosphatase level of 152.5±11.21 versus 212.6±9.63 U/L, controls (p&lt;0.01). The significance of changes in membrane-associated enzymes serum levels correlated with development of oxidative stress and metabolic processes dysfunction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion. </strong>In the patients with long-term consequences of mTBI, dysregulation of enzymes activity was detected that might be a marker of nervous system energy impairment and membranes destruction.</p> Ye. Lekomtseva Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10459 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 18:14:35 +0200 CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES: FOCUS ON MICROCIRCULATORY BED https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10671 <p><strong>Background</strong><em>. A microcirculatory bloodstream is a target, source and reason of the pathological process in patients with systemic connective tissue diseases. </em></p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong><em>. This study is focused on meta-analyses of biopsy material of skin flaps harvested from patients’ fingers to identify specific morphological changes. </em></p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><em>. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of 39 examinees with systemic sclerosis (SSc), 45 with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and 45 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was performed. The condition of peripheral hemodynamics was examined with longitudinal rheovasography of arms and legs. Endothelin-1 (ЕТ1) concentration was evaluated by immunoenzymatic method. We assessed other results of clinical and laboratory tests to compare them with morphological changes of the microcirculatory bed.</em></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><em>. Most patients involved suffered from abnormal peripheral hemodynamics. It was revealed that kidneys, lungs or heart were damaged more frequently in the patients with peripheral blood circulation disorders, which were the most significant in the patients with SSc (p&lt;0.05). Disorders of peripheral blood flow were exacerbated in case of lengthening of the disease course. Concentration of ЕТ1 was relevantly higher in the patients with peripheral blood flow disorders. Number of pathologic capillaries was the highest in the SSc patients. </em></p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><em>. In terms of integral estimation, extremely significant changes of microcirculatory bloodstream were evidenced in the patients with SSc. However, some morphometric peculiarities were revealed in the patients without peripheral blood flow disorders. Thus, normal rheovasography did not exclude any microcirculation disorders. </em></p> O. I. Zarudna, I. K. Venher, A. V. Dovbush Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10671 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 18:29:22 +0200 GOUT AND NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE: EFFECT OF ENTEROSORPTION’S ADDITION TO COMMON TREATMENT https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10886 <p><strong>Background.</strong> Gout is still one of the major health problems despite significant advances in treatment in recent years. It has been proved that pathogenetic mechanisms of development and progression of gout are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Complex pathogenic treatment of patients aimed at different parts of the pathological process has recently been supplemented with the enterosorbents.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The aim of the research is to study the clinical features of gout with concomitant nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to evaluate the effect of carbon enterosorbent on its course.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>123 patients were involved in the study. They were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients with gout without liver damage, and group 2 included patients with concomitant NAFLD. Each of these groups was divided into subgroups, in which the patients received carbon enterosorbent carboline plus basic treatment. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons. Anamnesis, physical examination, uric acid (UA), C-reactive protein (CRP) content, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in serum were determined. Gout activity was evaluated using the Gout Activity Score (GAS).</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>Basic treatment in combination with carbon enterosorbent contributed to faster cure of intoxication, pain and joint syndromes, as well as decrease of the inflammatory process activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The course of gout in the patients with concomitant NAFLD is more severe. Adding of carbon granular enterosorbent carboline in the complex treatment of patients with gout with or without concomitant NAFLD in the exacerbation phase contributes to a faster cureing dynamics of clinical and laboratory manifestations of the disease.</p> U. O. Mudra Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10886 Wed, 19 Feb 2020 15:43:38 +0200 MAIN INDIVIDUAL AND TYPOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HIGHER NERVOUS ACTIVITY IN YOUNG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT SOMATOTYPE WITH NORMAL AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10609 <p><strong>Background. </strong>The individual and typological features of the central nervous system are interpreted as highly genetically determined. Each somatotype is characterized by morphofunctional features of the activity of different systems, including the circulatory system.</p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>The aim of the research was to study the features of the main individual and typological parameters of higher nervous activity in persons of different somatotype with normal and high blood pressure (BP).</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> In the control group of the surveyed patients the BP value corresponded to the optimal level according to the WHO classification (125 people). The second group consisted of individuals, whose systolic blood pressure exceeded 130 mmHg at the time of the study and (or) diastolic – 85 mmHg (135 people). Somatotyping technique by Carter and Heath was used. Functional mobility (FMNP) and strength of nervous processes (SNP) were determined using the Diagnost-1 program (Makarenko and Lizogub).</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> In the individuals with predominance of ecto- and mesomorphic somatotype component, higher levels of major nervous processes were reported in response to strenuous processing of information, which was associated with more advanced mechanisms of information processing, its neurophysiological support. In people with endomorphic somatotype the lower levels of FMNP and SNP were clearly detected that could indicate that the speed characteristics of the nervous processes in them are at a lower level.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> In normal blood pressure, the highest indicator of FMNP was found in the individuals with predominance of ecto- and mesomorphic component. In the group with high blood pressure, the indicator at the level below the average was in endomorphs. Predominance of the ectomorphic component tended to increase in the surveyed, and in the mesomorphs was at the average level. The lowest level of SNP was found in the individuals with endomorphic somatotype of both groups.</p> S. N. Vadzyuk, L. I. Horban, I. Ya. Papinko Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10609 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 18:35:12 +0200 ULTRASOUND THROMBOELASTAGRAPHY FOR THE CHOICE OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH POSTOPERATIVE VENOUS THROMBOSIS https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10894 <p><strong>Background.</strong> The frequency of venous thromboembolic complications in surgery practice is rather high. In many cases, it is the cause of a fatal pulmonary embolism. One of the actual tasks of ultrasonic diagnostics of acute venous thrombosis is the visual assessment of the substrate of the disease because it determines angiosurgical tactics and surgical prophylaxis of pulmonary embolism.</p> <p><strong>The objective </strong>was to prevent the development of pulmonary embolism in patients with postoperative venous thrombosis of the inferior vena cava system.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>Vena cava system investigation and the determination of the sonoelastographic properties of the venous thrombus were carried out with the Siemens Acuson S2000 ultrasound system. The localization and prevalence of the thrombotic process were established. At the end of the topical diagnosis of a venous thrombus, the sonoelastographic properties of the thrombus were studied by determining the speed of propagation of the acoustic wave.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The work is based on the results of examination and surgical treatment of 729 patients, of which 205 (28.12%) had operative interventions on the musculoskeletal system, 378 (51.85%)&nbsp;– on the abdominal organs, 146 (20.01%)&nbsp;– reconstructive surgery on the aorta and the main arteries of the lower extremities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Embolodengerous thrombi are those venous thrombi of the inferior vena cava system which at ultrasonoelastography of the proximal segments of the venous thrombus are characterized by the acoustic wave propagation velocity within 2.5–2.8&nbsp;m/s. The detection of embolic venous thrombosis is an indication for surgical methods prevention of pulmonary embolism.</p> S. Ya. Kostiv, D. V. Khvalyboha, I. K. Venher, O. I. Zarudna, O. I. Kostiv Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10894 Wed, 26 Feb 2020 10:21:29 +0200 RISK FACTORS FOR FEMALE INFERTILITY AT A TERTIARY HEALTH FACILITY IN AKURE, SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10388 <p><strong>Background. </strong>The inability of couples to achieve pregnancy is a major cause of psycho-social problems in family relationship that could lead to marital disharmony.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The aim of this study was to find out the possible risk factors for female infertility.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>A case-control design and a sample size of 400 (200 cases of infertility and 200 controls) were used in the study. Cases and controls were selected at random at the infertility and family planning clinic of the University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital Complex, Akure and were subjected to a predesigned interviewer administered questionnaire to collect the data. The cases were classified into primary and secondary infertility; binary and stepwise logistic regressions were used to generate the Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of the possible risk factors and the level of significance was set at P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The mean age of the women with infertility was 28.5±5.43 years and the mean age of those in the control group was 29.1±5.62 years. Among the cases, 155 (77.5%) had secondary infertility, while 45 (22.5%) had primary infertility. Significant risk factors for female infertility included presence of fibroids, having had fibroid operation, multiple sexual partners, previous abortion, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), sexually transmitted infection (STI) and post abortion sepsis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The study showed that secondary infertility is still the most prevalent and the risk factors were multi factorial. Efforts should be intensified to reduce infertility due to preventable causes.</p> T. A. Irinyenikan Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10388 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 PRIMARY EPISODE OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10895 <p><strong>Background.</strong>&nbsp;Bipolar affective disorder&nbsp;(BAD)&nbsp;is a topical issue of contemporary psychiatry. The&nbsp;features of the primary episode (PE) of the disease are&nbsp;extremely important for prognosis,&nbsp;treatment and rehabilitation measures of BAD. Individual psychological features of the&nbsp;patients with PE of BAD are still unexplored that complicates development of new methods of prediction, treatment and prevention of BAD.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The aim of the study was to&nbsp;investigate individual psychological&nbsp;features of the patients with a primary episode of&nbsp;bipolar affective disorder, taking into account the gender factor and clinical variant of the BAD debut.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>153 patients (65 men and 88 women) with a primary episode of bipolar affective disorder were examined. The patients were divided into three groups according to the clinical variant of the course of PE of BAD: depressive variant, manic variant and mixed variant. The examination was carried out using the Standardized multifactor method of personality research (SMMPR). Statistical processing of the data was performed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The most significant differences in the quantitative indicators of SMMPR were found when comparing depressive and manic, as well as depressive and mixed variants of PE of BAD, and lesser – when comparing manic and mixed variants.&nbsp;Most of all, these differences were expressed in terms of pessimism, impulsiveness, individualism and optimism.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;Some peculiar features of male and female patients with depressive, manic and mixed variants of PE of BAD promoting to search for new methods of prediction, treatment and prevention of BAD have been defined.</p> Yu. I. Mysula Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10895 Wed, 26 Feb 2020 11:14:24 +0200 DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF MICROBIAL FLORA IMBALANCE IN GINGIVAL BIOFILM https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10448 <p><strong>Background. </strong>Periodontal tissues inflammatory diseases are widespread among young people.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>. This study was aimed at elaborating the method to assess risks of periodontal inflammatory diseases and determining its efficacy depending on the state of dental tissues, gum tissues and sex.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. The study included 182 students (93 men, 89 women) aged 19-29: 22 individuals had no lesions of hard dental tissues and no signs of periodontal disease; 51 individuals were found to have DMF index &lt;6; <br>52 individuals – DMF index ≥6; 57 individuals were diagnosed with chronic catarrhal gingivitis. Primary groups were formed in autumn; re-examination was carried in spring. The research participants were assessed for detection of risks of periodontal inflammatory disease by the method developes by the authors (Patent UA 54041).</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The study revealed that the risk of development of preiodontitis increases in individuals with high caries and gingivitis intensity. In spring, more individuals suffer from microbial imbalance in in the composition of gingival sulcus fluid and decrease in the mean stability coefficient value that indicates an increased risk of inflammatory periodontal disease development. Women were less likely to experience seasonal dysbiotic changes in the gingival sulcus fluid composition compared with men.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The method suggested for assessment of the risk of periodontal inflammatory diseases is of high informativeness. It allows clinicians detecting early pre-nosological signs of oral microbiocenosis imbalance that enhances the effectiveness of early diagnosis of inflammatory periodontal diseases.</p> G. A. Loban, T. O. Petrushanko, V. V. Chereda, M. O. Faustova, M. M. Ananieva, Ya. A. Basarab Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10448 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 18:39:35 +0200 YOUDEN'S TEST FOR CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF ENALAPRIL IN PHARMACEUTICALS https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10896 <p><strong>Background. </strong>Robustness tests were firstly introduced for avoiding problems in interlaboratory studies and identifying the factors potentially responsible. A robustness test performing in late validation procedure involves the possibility that when the method is established not robust, it should be redeveloped and optimized. At this stage much effort has been made and money spent for optimization and validation, and therefore avoiding this would be great.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The aim of the study was to consider the robustness of HPLC determination of enalapril (in tablets) by the Youden’s test.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Youden’s test was chosen as an efficient method to assess the robustness among all analytical methods that is by means of an experiment design, which involved seven analytical parameters combined in eight tests. In previous studies, we evaluated the chromatographic method robustness to quantify enalapril (in tablets) by Youden’s test.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>According to the Youden’s test criteria, HPLC method proved to be greatly robust regarding the enalapril content in introduction of variation of seven analytic parameters. The lowest variation in enalapril content was 0.91 %, when Grace Platinumр C8 EPS column (4.6 mm i.d. X 250 mm, 5 μm) was used. A holistic approach concerning simultaneous innovations in particle technology and instrument design was endeavored for the first time to meet and tackle the analytical laboratory issues. This was aimed at promoting success of analytical scientists as well as profitability and productiveness of business.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion. </strong>The Youden’s test has been proved to be an efficient and useful tool for evaluation of robustness of enalapril HPLC assay.</p> L. S. Logoyda Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10896 Wed, 26 Feb 2020 22:55:21 +0200 METHODS OF METOPROLOL ANALYSIS IN DRUGS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS: REVIEW AND SUGGESTIONS https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10897 <p><strong>Background. </strong>Analytical method is increasingly implemented into fundamental pharmaceutical chemistry and analysis, considering their high sensitivity, accuracy, specificity and expressiveness.</p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>Metoprolol’s analytical method development was the research goal.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The sources were world recognized journals (1990-2019) and key words used as filter were “metoprolol”, “spectrophotometry” “high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC”, “quantitative analysis”, “validation”.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Chromatographic methods of analysis have the highest specificity and objectivity and allow qualitative and quantitative determination of Active Pharmaceutic Ingredient (API) in combined dosage forms and biological fluids without prior components separation. The main disadvantage of the described API analysis methods is long terms from the beginning of chromatography to API release and specific solvents used as the mobile phase in HPLC. New methods development and selection such chromatographic conditions that provide high speed and high efficiency at lower pressure of the system are essential. Also, the reduction of analysis time is achieved by simplifying the conditions for sample preparation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Analysts are constantly working on developing new analysis methods and their optimization in order to save time and consumables, which also ensures the efficiency of the developed method. There is no monograph on the substance or dosage forms of metoprolol in SPhU. Therefore, some of the developed methods should be suggested for the SPhU monograph, which is important for ensuring pharmacopoeial quality control of medicines in Ukraine.</p> M. M. Horyn, L. S. Logoyda Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10897 Wed, 26 Feb 2020 23:15:56 +0200 QSAR-ANALYSIS OF POLYSUBSTITUTED FUNCTIONALIZED AMINOTHIAZOLES WITH ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ACTIVITY https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10898 <p><strong>Background.</strong> QSAR analysis is an important tool for the identification of pharmacophore fragments in biologically active substances and helps optimize the search for new effective drugs.</p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>The aim of the study was to determine the molecular descriptors for QSAR analysis of polysubstituted functionalized aminothiazoles as a theoretical basis for purposeful search de novo of potential antihypertensive drugs among the investigated compounds.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Calculation of molecular descriptors and QSAR-models creation was carried out using the Hyper-Chem 7.5 and BuildQSAR packages.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The calculation of a number of molecular descriptors (electronic, steric, geometric, energy) was performed for 15 new polysubstituted functionalized aminothiazoles, with established in vivo antihypertensive activity. According to the calculated molecular descriptors and antihypertensive activity parameter, the QSAR models were derived НА = a + b ∙ X1 + c ∙ X2 + d ∙ X3 , where the activity parameter НА is antihypertensive activity and X1, X2, X3 are molecular descriptors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The study of ‘the structure - antihypertensive activity’ relationship for polysubstituted functionalized aminothiazoles was carried out. QSAR analysis revealed that volume, area, lipophilicity, dipole moment, refractivity, polarization of the molecule and energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital have the most significant effect on antihypertensive activity. It was suggested that the attained QSAR-models may have antihypertensive activity within abovementioned row of compounds and can be considered as theoretical basis for de novo design of new potential antihypertensive drugs.</p> I. V. Drapak Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10898 Wed, 26 Feb 2020 23:28:28 +0200 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF PROPOXAZEPAM ON DIFFERENT MODELS OF INFLAMMATION https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10900 <p><strong>Background</strong>. Propoxazepam, 7-bromo-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-propoxy-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one, is a promising analgesic and anticonvulsant and is on preclinical trial.</p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>The aim of the research was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of Propoxazepam.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>The anti-inflammatory action was evaluated by carrageenan induced rat paw edema, formalin-induced paw licking response in mice and bradykinin-induced pain response in rat models.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> It was established for the first time that the administration of Propoxazepam caused a significant anti-inflammatory activity when tested in different in vivo chemical experimental models of induced inflammation, i.e. carrageenan-, bradykinin- and formalin-induced inflammation tests.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Propoxazepam significantly reduced acute and sub-acute inflammation and proved its efficacy and similar to anti-inflammatory action.</p> N. Ya. Golovenko, T. A. Kabanova, S. A. Andronati, O. I. Halimova, V. B. Larionov, A. S. Reder Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10900 Thu, 27 Feb 2020 12:10:49 +0200 IMPACT OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHESIS MODULATORS ON THE CYTOKINES PROFILE IN EXPERIMENTAL ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10698 <p><strong>Background</strong>.&nbsp; Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of specific antibodies.</p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of combined use of L-arginine and aminoguanidine on cytokine profile (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10) in experimental APS.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The study was performed on BALB/c female mice. L-arginine (25&nbsp;mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (10&nbsp;mg/kg) were used for correction. Serum cytokines concentrations were assessed using an ELISA test.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> It was found that in APS the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-a increases in 3.2, 2.3 and 4.5 times respectively, compare to the control. At the same time a decrease of the IL-4 and IL-10 in 1.9 and 2.2 times was evidenced.</p> <p>Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, caused a significant decrease of TNF-α by 57% (p&lt;0.001), but there were no changes in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 compare to the APS-group. L-arginine combined with aminoguanidine caused a significant decrease in the concentration of IL-1β by 30% (p&lt;0.01), IL-6 – by 16% (p&lt;0.05), TNF-a – by 59% (p&lt;0.001) compare to the control. At the same time, the concentration of IL-4 increased by 35% (p &lt;0.01), IL-10 – by 25% (p&lt;0.005).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Combined use of the precursor of the NO synthesis L-arginine and aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, leads to a decrease in the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-a and an increase of IL-4 and IL-10 compare to the group of the BALB/c mice with APS and the group of animals administered with aminoguanidine.</p> O. Z. Yaremchuk, K. A. Posokhova, I. P. Kuzmak, M. I. Kulitska, О. О. Shevchuk, A. S. Volska, P.H. Lykhatskyi Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10698 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 18:25:37 +0200 ROLE OF ENDOGENIC INTOXICATION IN MUSCLE INJURY IN EXPERIMENT https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10310 <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Background. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Endogenous intoxication is a multicomponent complex process due to the endogenous biological products or dysfunction of systemic natural detoxification. </span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Objective. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The aim of the research</span> <span lang="EN-US">was to study the dynamics of indices of endogenous intoxication in rats with traumatic muscle damage in the experiment.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Methods.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> The experiment was performed on 45 non-linear white rats, which were modeled with traumatic muscle damage. The level of endogenous intoxication was assessed by the content of medium plasma molecules (MMM), leukocyte and erythrocytic index of intoxication (LII and EII). The research was conducted on the 1<sup>st</sup>, 3<sup>rd</sup>, 7<sup>th</sup>, 14<sup>th</sup> days after the injury.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Results. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">It was found that traumatic muscle damage causes endotoxemia. Manifestations of endogenous intoxication are: the increase of MMM1 in 2.3 times, MMM2 in 2.8 times compare to the intact animals. The level of this indicator slightly decreased in 7 days. Simultaneously with an increase in the MCT level in the post-traumatic period, the total toxic effect on the erythrocyte membrane also increased, which was manifested by a significant increase in EII in all terms of observation.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Conclusions. </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Traumatic damage of the muscles is accompanied by the growth of molecules of average mass in upto 7 days of observation, which significantly differ from the indicators of the intact group. The results of our research prove that traumatic muscle damage causes endotoxicosis development evidenced by accumulation of endotoxins in the animals’ body that is proved by significant changes in endogenous intoxication indices: i.e. erythrocytic and leukocytic indexes of intoxication and content of medium mass molecules.</span></p> V. H. Dzhyvak, O. I. Khlibovska, I. M. Klishch Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10310 Tue, 18 Feb 2020 18:46:03 +0200 POSITIVE EFFECT OF ENTEROSORPTION IN DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED CARDIOHEMODYNAMICS ALTERATION https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10901 <p><strong>Background. </strong>Anthracycline antibiotics are one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs, but their cardiotoxicity what limits its therapeutic use.</p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>To analyze the efficiency of enterosorption in doxorubicin-induced cardiohemodynamics violation.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Subchronic doxorubicin toxicity was modeled by injecting the anthracycline antibiotic intraperitoneally at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a week for 4 weeks, in total 20 mg/kg. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 3 groups: control; DOX-group and DOX + enterosorbent C2 rats (γ = 0.18&nbsp;g/cm<sup>3</sup>, BET area 2162 m<sup>2</sup>/g). Cardiohemodynamics was studied by the Millar Instruments, heart morphometry – by Avtandilov’s method.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>Mortality rate in DOX-group was 25%. Ejection fraction and Stroke work indices were lower compared to the control group, preload adjusted maximal power decreased by 57.6%, minimum volume and end-systolic volume increased by 76,2 and 67.5% respectively. End-systolic stiffness of left ventricle (E<sub>max</sub>) as well as arterial elastance (E<sub>a</sub>) and end-systolic pressure had tended to decrease. Indices of left ventricle (LV) volume at systole increased: V@dPdt<sub>max</sub> – by 73.3%, V@dPdt<sub>min</sub> – by 81.9%. End-diastolic volume increased by 54.6%. As for the dPdt<sub>min</sub>, and Tau constant we observed the slight tendency to its decline. Endocardial surface of LV increased by 42.7%, Planimetric Index – by 40.4% compared to the control group of rats.</p> <p>In DOX+C2 group mortality rate was 18.75%. We observed the strong tendency to normalization of the main indices compared to the DOX group and shrinking of the LV. We want to underline the positive trends especially in Ejection Fraction (from 39.62±10.50% to 46.23±11.46%) and Stroke Work (from 6406.50±3345.83 to 10363.14±7329.55 mmHg×uL) as important indicators of the effectiveness of cardiac pump function.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Enterosorption demonstrated positive impact on the doxorubicin-induced violated cardiohemodynamics and decreased the mortality rate. It is a ground for further investigations.</p> O. O. Shevchuk, G. V. Portnichenko, T. Y. Lapikova-Bryginska, S. V. Goncharov, V. G. Nikolaev, V. E. Dosenko Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10901 Thu, 27 Feb 2020 12:49:34 +0200 GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES OF CARDIAC VEGETATIVE CONTROL IN ADRENALINE-INDUCED NECROSIS AND LIGHT DEPRIVATION https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10902 <p><strong>Background</strong>. Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity predominantly in males. Stress is one of the crucial factors, especially with light desynchronosis.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> of the study was to assess gender-specific characteristics of cardiac vegetative control in myocardial necrosis in cases of light deprivation.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Cardiac vegetative control in adrenaline-induced myocardial necrosis (AIMN) in a setting of light deprivation (LD) was assessed in 72 mature white rats of both sexes. The animals were divided into 2 groups: G1&nbsp;– the animals kept under day/night cyclic balance (12 hours/12 hours); G2 – the animals kept at LD (illumination 0.5-1 LX) for 10 days. On Day 11, AIMN caused by adrenaline (0.5 mg/kg) and heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed in 1 hour and 24 hours.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The development of AIMN at LD in the ♂G2 led to HRV increase that was caused by augmentation of parasympathetic and reduction of sympathetic cardiac effects. In cases of AIMN, changes of CVC in the ♀G2 were similar to the ♀G1. However, in 1 hour of AIMN, parasympathetic cardiac effects were more significant than in the ♀G1. While the ♀G2 AIMN animals experienced balanced sympathetic and parasympathetic actions, the predominance of the sympathetic component was evidenced in the ♀G1 AIMN animals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Light deprivation has different effects on baseline sympathetic/parasympathetic balance in males and females, i.e. increased parasympathetic control of heart rhythm in males and maintenance of sympathetic/ parasympathetic balance in females.</p> H. O. Bezkorovaina, I. M. Klishch, M. R. Khara, V. Ye. Pelykh Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/ijmr/article/view/10902 Thu, 27 Feb 2020 12:53:29 +0200