SERUM LIPID PROFILE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN NON-DIPPERS
Keywords:Non-dipping, arterial stiffness, lipids
Background. A non-dipping blood pressure profile (NDP) is associated with increased arterial stiffness and other cardiovascular target organ damage. Serum lipid profiles have been shown to be important determinants of arterial stiffness.
Objective. The aim of the research was to assess serum lipid profiles and arterial stiffness in non-dippers.
Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted involving 796 (288 males and 508 females) participants of black African origin. A twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP monitoring was done using a Spacelabs 90207 (Spacelabs Inc., Redmond, Washington, USA) monitor. Carotid-Femoral pulse wave velocity measurements were performed using a high fidelity SPC-301 micromanometer (Millar instruments Inc., Houston, TX).
Results. Of the 288 males, 140 were classified as non-dippers. Of the 508 females, 273 were classified as non-dippers. In the general population, males had higher triglycerides when compared with females 1.46±0.96 vs 1.13±1.02, p<0.0001. Additionally, dipper males had higher serum TRGL when compared with dipper females 1.32±0.98 vs 1.06±0.58, p = 0.0012. Non-dipper males also had higher serum TRGL when compared with non-dipper females 1.61±2.05 vs 1.19±1.14, p=0.0078. Serum HDLc was lower in the non-dipper male group when compared to the non-dipper female group (p=0.008). In both male and female groups, non-dippers had higher CFPWV when compared with dippers; 7.53±3.60 vs 5.74±2.47, p<0.0001 and 6.64±2.52 vs 5.98±2.23, p=0.0021 respectively. However, non-dipper males had significantly higher CFPWV when compared with non-dipper females (7.53±3.60 vs 6.64±2.52, p=0.0031).
Conclusions. Therapies targeting a reduction of serum triglycerides levels might be beneficial in improving arterial compliance with or without the presence of non-dipping.
Head GA, Mihailidou AS, Duggan KA, Beilin LJ, Berry N, Brown MA, Bune AJ, Cowley D, Chalmers JP, Howe PR, Hodgson J. Definition of ambulatory blood pressure targets for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in relation to clinic blood pressure: prospective cohort study. Bmj. 2010 Apr 14;340:1104.
Hansen TW, Jeppesen J, Rasmussen S, Ibsen H, Torp-Pedersen C. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population based study. American journal of hypertension. 2006 Mar 1;19(3):243-50.
Blacher J, Guerin AP, Pannier B, Marchais SJ, Safar ME, London GM. Impact of aortic stiffness on survival in end-stage renal disease. Circulation. 1999 May 11;99(18):2434-9.
Laurent S, Cockcroft J, Van Bortel L, Boutouyrie P, Giannattasio C, Hayoz D, Pannier B, Vlachopoulos C, Wilkinson I, Struijker-Boudier H. Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. European heart journal. 2006 Nov 1;27(21):2588-605.
Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Asmar R, Gautier I, Laloux B, Guize L, Ducimetiere P, Benetos A. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2001 May;37(5):1236-41.
Reference Values for Arterial Stiffness’ Collaboration. Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: ‘establishing normal and reference values’. European heart journal. 2010 Oct 1;31(19): 2338-50.
Aggoun Y, Bonnet D, Sidi D, Girardet JP, Brucker E, Polak M, Safar ME, Levy BI. Arterial mechanical changes in children with familial hypercholesterolemia. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2000 Sep;20(9):2070-5.
Hansen TW, Staessen JA, Torp-Pedersen C, Rasmussen S, Thijs L, Ibsen H and Jeppesen J. Prognostic value of aortic pulse wave velocity as index of arterial stiffness in the general population. Circulation. 2006;113:664–70.
Wang X, Ye P, Cao R, Yang X, Xiao W, Zhang Y, Bai Y, Wu H. Triglycerides are a predictive factor for arterial stiffness: a community-based 4.8-year prospective study. Lipids in health and disease. 2016 Dec 1;15(1):97-105.
Zhao W, Gong W, Wu N, Li Y, Ye K, Lu B, Zhang Z, Qu S, Li Y, Yang Y, Hu R. Association of lipid profiles and the ratios with arterial stiffness in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Lipids in health and disease. 2014 Dec 1;13(1):37-42.
Assmann G, Gotto Jr AM. HDL cholesterol and protective factors in atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2004 Jun 15;109(23_suppl_1):III-8.
Zhao WW, Yang YH, Lu B, Feng XC, He M, Yang ZH, Wen J, Zhang ZY, Yang Z, Li Q, Ye Z. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and progression to arterial stiffness in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2013 Oct 1;23(10):973-9.
Wang X, Du Y, Fan L, Ye P, Yuan Y, Lu X, Wang F, Zeng Q. Relationships between HDL-C, hs-CRP, with central arterial stiffness in apparently healthy people undergoing a general health examination. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 3;8(12):e81778.
Shen WC, Lu FH, Yang YC, Wu JS, Chang YF, Huang YH, Chang CJ. The relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2017 Dec 1;27(12):1136-42.
Chang JB, Chu NF, Syu JT, Hsieh AT, Hung YR. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in relation to atherosclerotic lipid profiles in middle-aged and elderly diabetic patients. Lipids in health and disease. 2011 Dec 1;10(1):228-34.
Zieman SJ, Melenovsky V, Kass DA. Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and therapy of arterial stiffness. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2005 May 1;25(5):932-43.
Campbell S, Genest J. HDL-C: clinical equipoise and vascular endothelial function. Expert review of cardiovascular therapy. 2013 Mar 1;11(3):343-53.
Bjornstad P, Nguyen N, Reinick C, Maahs DM, Bishop FK, Clements SA, Snell-Bergeon JK, Lieberman R, Pyle L, Daniels SR, Wadwa RP. Association of apolipoprotein B, LDL-C and vascular stiffness in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Acta diabetologica. 2015 Jun 1;52(3):611-9.
Sampson UK, Fazio S, Linton MF. Residual cardiovascular risk despite optimal LDL cholesterol reduction with statins: the evidence, etiology, and therapeutic challenges. Current atherosclerosis reports. 2012 Feb 1;14(1):1-0.
Nilsson G, Öhrvik J, Lönnberg I, Hedberg P. Ten-year survival in 75-year-old men and women: predictive ability of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C. Current gerontology and geriatrics research. 2009 Jan 1;2009;3:6-12.
Alecu C, Gueguen R, Aubry C, Salvi P, Perret-Guillaume C, Ducrocq X, Vespignani H, Benetos A. Determinants of arterial stiffness in an apparently healthy population over 60 years. Journal of human hypertension. 2006 Oct;20(10):749-56.
de Oliveira Alvim R, Santos PC, Musso MM, de Sá Cunha R, Krieger JE, Mill JG, Pereira AC. Impact of diabetes mellitus on arterial stiffness in a representative sample of an urban Brazilian population. Diabetology & metabolic syndrome. 2013 Dec 1;5(1):45-52.
AlGhatrif M, Strait JB, Morrell CH, Canepa M, Wright J, Elango P, Scuteri A, Najjar SS, Ferrucci L, Lakatta EG. Longitudinal trajectories of arterial stiffness and the role of blood pressure: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Hypertension. 2013 Nov;62(5):934-41.
Wen W, Peng B, Tang X, Huang HX, Wen X, Hu S and Luo R. Prevalence of high arterial stiffness and gender-specific differences in the relationships with classical cardiovascular risk factors. J Athero Thromb. 2015;22:706-17.
Magalhães P, Capingana DP, Silva AB, Ferreira AV, de Sá Cunha R, Rodrigues SL, Mill JG. Age-and gender-specific reference values of pulse wave velocity for African adults: preliminary results. Age. 2013 Dec 1;35(6):2345-55.
Nethononda RM, Lewandowski AJ, Stewart R, Kylinterias I, Whitworth P, Francis J, Leeson P, Watkins H, Neubauer S, Rider OJ. Gender specific patterns of age-related decline in aortic stiffness: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study including normal ranges. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 2015 Dec 1;17(1):20-9.
Tomiyama H, Yamashina A, Arai T, Hirose K, Koji Y, Chikamori T, Hori S, Yamamoto Y, Doba N, Hinohara S. Influences of age and gender on results of noninvasive brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity measurement—a survey of 12 517 subjects. Atherosclerosis. 2003 Feb 1;166(2):303-9.
Jerrard-Dunne P, Mahmud A, Feely J. Circadian blood pressure variation: relationship between dipper status and measures of arterial stiffness. Journal of hypertension. 2007 Jun 1;25(6):1233-9.
Barnes JN, Hart EC, Curry TB, Nicholson WT, Eisenach JH, Wallin BG, Charkoudian N, Joyner MJ. Aging enhances autonomic support of blood pressure in women. Hypertension. 2014 Feb;63(2):303-8.
Johnson CP, Baugh R, Wilson CA, Burns J. Age related changes in the tunica media of the vertebral artery: implications for the assessment of vessels injured by trauma. Journal of clinical pathology. 2001 Feb 1;54(2):139-45.
How to Cite
Authors who sent their manuscript to International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY-NC that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).