RISK FACTORS FOR FEMALE INFERTILITY AT A TERTIARY HEALTH FACILITY IN AKURE, SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA
Background. The inability of couples to achieve pregnancy is a major cause of psycho-social problems in family relationship that could lead to marital disharmony.
Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the possible risk factors for female infertility.
Methods. A case-control design and a sample size of 400 (200 cases of infertility and 200 controls) were used in the study. Cases and controls were selected at random at the infertility and family planning clinic of the University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital Complex, Akure and were subjected to a predesigned interviewer administered questionnaire to collect the data. The cases were classified into primary and secondary infertility; binary and stepwise logistic regressions were used to generate the Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of the possible risk factors and the level of significance was set at P<0.05.
Results. The mean age of the women with infertility was 28.5±5.43 years and the mean age of those in the control group was 29.1±5.62 years. Among the cases, 155 (77.5%) had secondary infertility, while 45 (22.5%) had primary infertility. Significant risk factors for female infertility included presence of fibroids, having had fibroid operation, multiple sexual partners, previous abortion, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), sexually transmitted infection (STI) and post abortion sepsis.
Conclusion. The study showed that secondary infertility is still the most prevalent and the risk factors were multi factorial. Efforts should be intensified to reduce infertility due to preventable causes.
World Health Organization (WHO). Female Infertility. Technical Report Series 1998; 401.
World Health Organization (WHO). Infertility: A tabulation of available data on prevalence of primary and secondary infertility programme on Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Division of Family Health 1991.
Thomas KD, Adeoye OA, Olusanya, OO. Biochemical Markers in Seminal Plasma of Sub-Fertile Nigeria Men. Tropical Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology 1995; 15:19.
Ogunniyi SO, Makinde OO, Dare FO. Abortion Related Deaths in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Science 1999; 19(4): 271 – 274.
Okonofua FE. Case against new reproductive technologies in developing countries. British Journal Of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1999; 103: 957 – 962.
Scarneciu I, Lupu S, Scarneciu C. Smoking as a risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction and infertility in men; evaluation depending on the anxiety levels of these patients. Soc Behav Sci. 2014; 12.
Olooto O, Wasiu E, Amballi A, Adebayo A, Banjo B, Taiwo A. A review of Female Infertility; important etiological factors and Management J. Microbiol. Biotech. Res., 2012, 2 (3):379-385.
Brady M. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy, and Safeguarding Fertility: Triple Protection Needs of Young Women. Reprod Health Matters 2003;11:134-41.
Dubin L and Amelar R. Sexual causes of female infertility. Fertil Steril 1997; 43: 678.
Frank O. Worldwide infertility: Estimation and implications. Population development review 1993; 9: 137-44.
Larsen U. Primary and secondary infertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Epidemiol 2000; 29:285-291.
Rutstein SO. Factors associated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the 1990s. World Health Organization 2000; 78:1256-1270.
Ericksen K, Brunette T. Patterns and predictors of infertility among African women: a cross-national survey of twenty-seven nations. Soc Sci Med 1996; 42:209-220.
Sule JO, Erigbali P, Eruom L. Prevalence of Infertility in Women in a South western Nigerian Community. African Journal of Biomedical Research 2008; 11: 225 – 227.
Orhue A, Aziken M. Experience with a comprehensive University hospital-based infertility program in Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2008; 101(1):11-15.
Abubakar AP, Yusuf TS. The profile of infertility in a Teaching Hospital in North West Nigeria. Sahel Medical Journal 2014 ; 17: 1.
Okonofua FE. Infertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Okonofua FE, Odunsi K, editors. Contemporary Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Developing Countries. Publishers: Women’s Health and Action Research Center. Benin City: 2003:128-56.
Templeton A, Fraser C, Thompson B. Infertility-epidemiology and referral practice. Hum Reprod 1991; 6: 1391-4.
Sabarre KA, Khan Z, Whitten AN, Remes O, Phillips KP. A qualitative study of Ottawa university students’ awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Reprod Health J. 2013; 10(41):1-10. doi:10.1186/1742-4755- 10-41.
Palihawadana TS, Wijesinghe PS, Seneviratne HR. Aetiology of infertility among females seeking treatment at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Ceylon Med J. 2012; 57(2):79-83. doi:10.4038/cmj.v57i2.4461.
Regan L, Owen E, Jacobs H. Surgery and risk of infertility and miscarriages. Lancet 1990; 336: 1141-1144.
Orji EO. Comparative study of the impact of past pregnancy outcome on future fertility. Singapore Med J 2008; 49:1021-1024. 25.
Samiha M, Hassan AH, Nehad M, Fayek E, Gehan S. Risk Factors For Primary and Secondary Female Infertility in Alexandria: A Hospital Based Case Control Study. Journal of the Medical Research Institute JMRI 2006; 27(4):255 -261.
Franks S. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 853-861.
Barbieri RL. Induction of ovulation in infertile women with hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 2000; 183 (6): 1412–8.
Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who sent their manuscript to International Journal of Medicine and Medical Research agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY-NC that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).