Pathomorphological changes in the gums of drug addicted patients with dystrophic-inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues

  • I. R. Fedun Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University
Keywords: generalized periodontitis, drug addiction, pathomorphological changes

Abstract

The influence of drugs on tissues of periodontium remains not fully understood. The study of pathomorphological changes in periodontal tissues makes it possible to trace the extent of the pathological process as a result of the action of drugs.

The aim of the study – to learn the pathomorphological changes in the gums of drug addicted patients with generalized periodontitis (GP).

Materials and Methods. Morphological studies were performed on incisional gingival biopsies on 23 drug-dependent patients with GP, 20 non-addictive patients with GP and persons with periodontal intact tissues. The resulting material was impregnated with paraffin, made 8 μm sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin.

Results and Discussion. In non-addicted patients with GP initial degree I, parakeratosis was most often observed. When inflammatory process in the oral mucous of drug-dependent patients with GP initial degree I – granular layer there is no completely or partially expressed and phenomenon of hyperkeratosis was present. For non-addicted patients with GP degree II development of the dystrophic process was accompanied by the phenomena of hyperkeratosis, as well as acanthosis. The same changes were also observed in the gums mucous of addicted patients with GP degree II, however, they were joined by the phenomena of vacuole dystrophy and balloon dystrophy and polymorphic-cellular infiltration among epithelial layer cells and in deeper layers. Insignificant exudative changes, such as perivascular infiltrates were found in non-addicted patients with a GP degree III. In drug-dependent patients with GP degree III observed deformation phenomena in their own plate of the mucous gums. The high level of cell proliferation and profound of spongyosis showed the severity of pathological changes.

Conclusions. With the development of GP degree II in the tissues of gums, drug-addicted patients observed the phenomenon of balloon dystrophy, in comparatively to the GP initial degree I, and with the GP degree ІІІ, the deformation of the own layer of epithelium, pronounced spongyosis and high levels of cell proliferation. Pathohistological changes in the gums mucous of drug addicted patients had a more prominent destructive character than in non-addictive patients.

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Published
2019-01-24
How to Cite
Fedun, I. R. (2019). Pathomorphological changes in the gums of drug addicted patients with dystrophic-inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues. Clinical Dentistry, (4), 31-35. https://doi.org/10.11603/2311-9624.2018.4.9748
Section
Terapeutic stomatology