Pathomorphological changes in the gums of drug addicted patients with dystrophic-inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues
The influence of drugs on tissues of periodontium remains not fully understood. The study of pathomorphological changes in periodontal tissues makes it possible to trace the extent of the pathological process as a result of the action of drugs.
The aim of the study – to learn the pathomorphological changes in the gums of drug addicted patients with generalized periodontitis (GP).
Materials and Methods. Morphological studies were performed on incisional gingival biopsies on 23 drug-dependent patients with GP, 20 non-addictive patients with GP and persons with periodontal intact tissues. The resulting material was impregnated with paraffin, made 8 μm sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Results and Discussion. In non-addicted patients with GP initial degree I, parakeratosis was most often observed. When inflammatory process in the oral mucous of drug-dependent patients with GP initial degree I – granular layer there is no completely or partially expressed and phenomenon of hyperkeratosis was present. For non-addicted patients with GP degree II development of the dystrophic process was accompanied by the phenomena of hyperkeratosis, as well as acanthosis. The same changes were also observed in the gums mucous of addicted patients with GP degree II, however, they were joined by the phenomena of vacuole dystrophy and balloon dystrophy and polymorphic-cellular infiltration among epithelial layer cells and in deeper layers. Insignificant exudative changes, such as perivascular infiltrates were found in non-addicted patients with a GP degree III. In drug-dependent patients with GP degree III observed deformation phenomena in their own plate of the mucous gums. The high level of cell proliferation and profound of spongyosis showed the severity of pathological changes.
Conclusions. With the development of GP degree II in the tissues of gums, drug-addicted patients observed the phenomenon of balloon dystrophy, in comparatively to the GP initial degree I, and with the GP degree ІІІ, the deformation of the own layer of epithelium, pronounced spongyosis and high levels of cell proliferation. Pathohistological changes in the gums mucous of drug addicted patients had a more prominent destructive character than in non-addictive patients.
Herych, I.D., Iftodii, A.H., & Biltsan, O.V. (2015). Khirurhichni uskladnennia iniektsiinoi narkomanii: problemy ta osoblyvosti likuvannia [Surgical complications of injecting drug use: problems and treatment features]. Chernivtsi: Bukrek [in Ukrainian].
Zubachyk, V.M., & Fedun, I.R. (2017). Biokhimichni pokaznyky rotovoi ridyny u narkozalezhnykh khvorykh na khronichnyi heneralizovanyi parodontyt [Biochemical indicators of oral fluid in drug addicted patients with chronic generalized periodontitis]. Klinichna stomatolohiia – Clinical Dentistry, 2, 9-14 [in Ukrainian].
Kovalchuk, L.Ye., Shutak, O.V., & Pertsovych, V.M. (2001). Ultrastrukturni zminy epitelialnoi tkanyny slyzovoi obolonky rotovoi porozhnyny u stomatolohichnykh khvorykh [Ultrastructural changes in the epithelial tissue of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity in dental patients]. Bukovynskyi medychnyi visnyk – Bukovyna Medical Bulletin, 5 (3-4), 53-54 [in Ukrainian].
Kuzenko, Ye.V., Romaniuk, A.M., & Karpenko, L.I. (2013). Morfolohichni zminy u tkanynakh parodontu pry zapalenni [Morphological changes in the periodontal tissue during inflammation]. Ukrayinskyi morfolohichnyi almanakh – Ukrainian Morphological Almanac, 11 (2), 58-60 [in Ukrainian].
Leshner, A.I. (2002). Naukovi pohliady na narkotychnu zalezhnist ta yii likuvannia [Scientific views on drug addiction and its treatment]. Likarskyi visnyk – Medicinal Herald, 1, 26-31 [in Ukrainian].
Copyright (c) 2019 Clinical Dentistry
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.