The results of biofilm formation intensity on titanium abutments using real-time polymerase chain reaction and microbiological culture
Titanium has a unique combination of strength, light weight and biocompatibility, so that the supporting elements of the implants (abutment) made of this material are the number 1 choice when replacing lateral occlusal defects. Characteristic of the abutment surface which includes the chemical composition, free surface energy (SFE) and stiffness affect the biofilm formation which is the main cause of perimplantitis. Periimplant sites are colonized by the same bacteria that cause periodontal diseases, namely: A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, T.forsythensis, P.intermedia. Real-time polymerase chain reaction can directly identify these periodontal pathogens by determining the quantitative content of a specific DNA fragment in a sample.
The aim of the study – to learn the intensity of the biofilm formation on titanium abutments using real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacterial cultures.
Materials and Methods. There were 14 patients in the study who were treated in MM Dental Implants and Prosthetics Center. Each patient underwent dental implantation and got titanium abutments placed in their mouth. The study was conducted in three stages, in which each visit was followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological cultures. On the first visit, samples were taken around the tooth, one week before the abutment placement. On Visit 2, samples were taken from the periimplant sulcus around titanium abutments. Visit 3 was in 3 months after the abutment placement.
Results and Discussion. During the study 42 real-time PCR tests and 42 bacteriological cultures were performed. Registration and record of PCR results were performed automatically by RealTime_PCR software. Interpretation of the results was carried out in accordance with the standard table of microorganisms in the biotope of the periodontal pocket (Lg GE / sample). According to this table, in the biotope of the periodontal pocket (Lg CE / sample), three patients had an excess of the total bacterial mass of PCR around the titanium abutment in the second stage (visit No. 2), one of these patients also had a higher number of P.gingivalis and Tr. denticola. At the third stage of the study (visit No. 3), five patients had the high numbers of the total bacterial mass, one of these patients showed an increased number of T.forsythensis. The results were presented as mean (M ± SE) and percent ± percentage errors, that is the percentage of the detected bacteria.
Conclusions. The results of the study showed an increased number of the total bacterial mass of PCR around titanium abutments in three patients at the second stage of the study (visit No. 2) and in five patients at the third stage (visit No. 3). The highest mean and highest percentage of the detection was in P.gingivalis, which is the keystone pathogen of the "red" complex. However, only one subject of the study showed an increased amount of P.gingivalis around the titanium abutments. These results confirm that Titanium is a reliable material for replacing the tooth defects in lateral areas.
Volinska, T.B.,& Bondarchuk, O.L. (2016). Klinichnyy dosvid zastosuvannya testovoi systemy Stomatoflor dlya otsinky mikrobioty parodontalnoi kysheni metodom PLR u rezhymi realnoho chasu [Clinical experience of the use of real-time PCR test system Stomatoflor to assess the microflora of the periodontal pocket]. Implantolohiya. Parodotolohiya.Osteolohiya [in Ukrainian].
Got, S.-R.R.,& Bondarchuk, O.L.,& Uhryn, M.M. (2018). Metodyka vyznachennya parodontopatoheniv navkolo oksyd-tsyrkoniievykh i tytanovykh abatmentiv za dopomohoiu polimeraznoi lantsuhovoi reaktsii v rezhymi realnoho chasu [Real-time PCR as a method of periodontal pathogens detection around zirconia and titanium abutments]. Novyny stomatolohii [in Ukrainian].
Zorina, O.A.,& Kulakov, A.A.,& Boriskina, O.A. (2011). Metod PTsR “v realnom vremeni” dlya analiza kolichectvennoho i kachestvennoho sootnosheniy mikrobiotsenoza parodontalnoho karmana [Method of the "real-time" PCR for the analysis of the quantitative and qualitative ratio of the periodontal pocket microbiota]. Stomatolohiya [in Russian].
Shtan, I.V. (2005). Vykorystannya tytanu v ortopedychniy stomatolohii [The use of Titanium in prosthetic dentistry]. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Ukr.med.stom.akademiya [in Ukrainian].
Blackwell Wiley. Clinical and Laboratory Manual of Dental Abutments. New York. 2014 Sep 26: 200.
Boutaga, Khalil, et al. "Periodontal pathogens: a quantitative comparison of anaerobic culture and real-time PCR." FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 45.2 (2005): 191-199.
Hauser-Gerspach Irmgard. Bactericidal effects of different laser systems on bacteria adhered to dental implant surfaces: an in vitro study comparing zirconia with titanium. Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 2010; 21: 277–283.
Kim, Su-Gwan, et al. "Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans using species-specific 16S rDNA primers." The Journal of Microbiology 43.2 (2005): 209-212.
Teughels, W., Van Assche, N., Sliepen, I. & Quirynen, M. (2006). Effect of material characteristics and/or surface topography on biofilm development. Clinical Oral Implants Research 17 Suppl 2, 68–81.
Wu‐Yuan, C.D., Eganhouse, K.J., Keller, J.C. & Walters, K.S. (1995). Oral bacterial attachment to titanium surfaces: A scanning electron microscopy study. Journal of Oral Implantology 21, 207–213.
Copyright (c) 2019 Clinical Dentistry
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.