The results of biofilm formation intensity on titanium abutments using real-time polymerase chain reaction and microbiological culture

  • S. R. Got Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University
  • M. M. Uhryn Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University
  • T. G. Gutor Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University
  • O. L. Bondarchuk Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University
Keywords: biofilm, titanium, abutment, supporting elements of implants


Titanium has a unique combination of strength, light weight and biocompatibility, so that the supporting elements of the implants (abutment) made of this material are the number 1 choice when replacing lateral occlusal defects. Characteristic of the abutment surface which includes the chemical composition, free surface energy (SFE) and stiffness affect the biofilm formation which is the main cause of perimplantitis. Periimplant sites are colonized by the same bacteria that cause periodontal diseases, namely: A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, T.forsythensis, P.intermedia. Real-time polymerase chain reaction can directly identify these periodontal pathogens by determining the quantitative content of a specific DNA fragment in a sample.

The aim of the study – to learn the intensity of the biofilm formation on titanium abutments using real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacterial cultures.

Materials and Methods. There were 14 patients in the study who were treated in MM Dental Implants and Prosthetics Center. Each patient underwent dental implantation and got titanium abutments placed in their mouth. The study was conducted in three stages, in which each visit was followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological cultures. On the first visit, samples were taken around the tooth, one week before the abutment placement. On Visit 2, samples were taken from the periimplant sulcus around titanium abutments. Visit 3 was in 3 months after the abutment placement.

Results and Discussion. During the study 42 real-time PCR tests and 42 bacteriological cultures were performed. Registration and record of PCR results were performed automatically by RealTime_PCR software. Interpretation of the results was carried out in accordance with the standard table of microorganisms in the biotope of the periodontal pocket (Lg GE / sample). According to this table, in the biotope of the periodontal pocket (Lg CE / sample), three patients had an excess of the total bacterial mass of PCR around the titanium abutment in the second stage (visit No. 2), one of these patients also had a higher number of P.gingivalis and Tr. denticola. At the third stage of the study (visit No. 3), five patients had the high numbers of the total bacterial mass, one of these patients showed an increased number of T.forsythensis. The results were presented as mean (M ± SE) and percent ± percentage errors, that is the percentage of the detected bacteria.

Conclusions. The results of the study showed an increased number of the total bacterial mass of PCR around titanium abutments in three patients at the second stage of the study (visit No. 2) and in five patients at the third stage (visit No. 3). The highest mean and highest percentage of the detection was in P.gingivalis, which is the keystone pathogen of the "red" complex. However, only one subject of the study showed an increased amount of P.gingivalis around the titanium abutments. These results confirm that Titanium is a reliable material for replacing the tooth defects in lateral areas.


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How to Cite
Got, S. R., Uhryn, M. M., Gutor, T. G., & Bondarchuk, O. L. (2019). The results of biofilm formation intensity on titanium abutments using real-time polymerase chain reaction and microbiological culture. Clinical Dentistry, (4), 63-68.
Ortopedic stomatology