A modern view on complications in dental implantation
Summary. The development of dentistry at the present stage opens up new possibilities in the treatment of adentia by means of the intraosseous implantation of artificial supports for dentures, which opened up new opportunities for improving the quality of comprehensive rehabilitation of dental patients. The development of new methods of surgical interventions and prosthetics, the creation of new implant systems help to increase the life of dentures on implants, improve the quality of life of patients.
The aim of the study – literary sources analysis with the study of possible complications and their causes at various stages of patient rehabilitation with dental implants.
Materials and Methods. The review and analysis of scientific-medical literature for the years 2013–2019 was conducted, according to the databases Scopus, Web of Science, Med Line, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Global Health, CyberLeninka, RINC. Attention is focused on the main causes of complications of dental implantation.
Results and Discussion. The method of dental implantation is increasingly used in practical dentistry in the replacement of various defects in the dentition. Dental implants dramatically increased the quality of orthopedic rehabilitation of patients due to the possibility of using fixed dentures in the replacement of dentition defects in both partial and complete adentia. It is worth noting that along with the positive results of implantation, complications are also observed. Complications are caused by errors made at any stage: during planning, directly during bone grafting and dental implantation, in the early and long-term postoperative periods, both related to objective and subjective reasons. The success of comprehensive rehabilitation of patients by dental implantation in conditions of jaw bone deficiency is determined by many factors that play an important role at various stages of treatment. The most important stage ensures the further success of the proposed comprehensive treatment of patients, a thorough examination, diagnosis, determination and compliance with indications and contraindications for dental implantation in conditions that are far from optimal. Inadequate consideration of the characteristics of the somatic and dental anamnesis, complaints, motivation and expectations of the patient from the upcoming treatment, examination data, clinical examination, assessment of the functional state of the patient’s dentofacial system, level of oral hygiene, can lead to unjustified expectations of the patient, local and general complications. Among the objective reasons that directly lead to inaccuracies in diagnosis are the imperfection and lack of informational content of radiation methods, incorrect scaling when determining the size of the proposed site for implantation.
Conclusions. The problem of finding optimal implantation technologies, as well as methods for the prevention and treatment of complications, is relevant and includes not only the development of new surgical procedures, the use of additional measures during prosthetics, but also the creation of new implant systems that fully comply with the requirements for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the peri-implant zone. Undoubtedly, new advances in this area will help reduce the number of complications after implantation in dental patients, and improve their quality of life.
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