Biomarkers in the diagnosis of periodontal diseases
Summary. The chronic course of periodontitis and gingivitis affects up to 80 % of the adult population, making them one of the most common diseases of mankind. The disease is initiated by the accumulation of bacteria along the gingival margin and in the space between the gingival tissue and the teeth. The absence of an acute pain clinic for periodontal diseases is one of the main reasons for the low level of patients seeking dental care. Diagnosis of periodontal disease, as a rule, is carried out by a dentist, it includes a visual examination of the gum tissue and a number of other protocol procedures, including additional diagnostic methods – a clinical assessment of the roentgenogram. At the same time, conventional clinical and radiographic methods for periodontal diagnostics are capable of only a retrospective diagnosis, they cannot detect or predict the activity of periodontitis. For these reasons, in recent years, potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontal tissue diseases have been actively investigated. The source of biomarkers, in the first place, are considered gingival fluid and saliva, such as those that are in direct contact with the affected tissues. Given the foregoing, it seems appropriate to review the literature on biomarkers of gingival fluid and saliva used to diagnose periodontal diseases and the possibility of developing easy-to-use test methods for their early diagnosis.
The aim of the study – to evaluate the prospects of using biomarkers in dental practice, in particular in the diagnosis of parathon tissue pathology, including peri-implant pathology, based on the analysis of literature data.
Materials and Methods. The study used biblical and analytical methods.
Results and Discussion. The sources of scientific and medical information on the application of biomarkers in the diagnosis of periodontal diseases are analyzed and processed.
Conclusions. Despite the fact that the diagnostic value of oral fluids is recognized and there is a significant number of potential biomarkers, the studies conducted to date have proved inadequate to provide clinically reliable and useful information for practitioners in terms of more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.
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