Background. The use of mathematical methods to study the morpho-functional features of follicular thyrocytes ultrastructures of the thyroid gland, in particular the transport direction of its activity, is due to the importance of the thyroid gland for the body. Impairment of synthesis, transporting, deiodinizing, thyroid hormones metabolism lead to clinical and subclinical disorders of the thyroid gland. The share of thyroid pathology in the overall structure of endocrine morbidity is significant and is characterized by a tendency to increase. The most common cause of thyroid disorders is alimentary iodine deficiency and related health disorders; a good reason is the impairment of thyroid homeostasis by various harmful effects of chemical or physical nature.

Prevention of iodine deficiency disorders and correction of their manifestations is carried out with iodine-containing substances. Organic compounds are increasingly used, among which seaweed is considered to be a particularly promising source of organic iodine. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the relationship between the follicular thyrocytes ultrastructures in the transport direction of their activity when taking organic iodine under conditions of potentiation of iodine deficiency in the diet with antithyroid drugs.

Material and methods. The study was performed on 50 white nonlinear male rats with initial weight of 140-160 g, of which 10 animals consumed common digestible food, 40 - iodine-deficient starch-casein diet. Potentiation of alimentary iodine deficiency was performed with mercazolyl (Thiamazole) at the dose of 3 mg per kg body weight. Correction during 30 days of potentiated alimentary iodine deficiency was performed by histologically determined small (initial - 21 |jg iodine per kg body weight), moderate (50 jg iodine per kg body weight) and large (100 jg iodine per kg body weight) doses of organic iodine of iodine-protein components from the Black Sea red alga Phyllophora nervosa (DC.) Grev. The tasks were solved by electron microscopy, method of semi-quantitative analysis of electronograms, method on specifying the profiles of special capabilities of hormone-poietic cells, correlation analysis with determining the strength of connections on the Chaddock scale and designing of correlation portraits; interpretation of the obtained results was performed from the standpoint of cytophysiology.

Results and discussion. Analysis of correlation portraits revealed that in the conditions of uncorrected potentiated alimentary iodine deficiency, despite the impairment of the microcapillary bed, there is a certain resource for transportation of the produced hormonal product. Intake of organic iodine improves intraorgan hemocirculation. Features of exposure to small doses of organic iodine are such mechanisms of adaptation to the transport of thyroid hormones in adverse conditions as the presence of stasis and microthrombosis in the microcapillary bed, increased folding of follicular thyrocytes' basal cytoplasmic membranes, endothelial hypertrophy, increasing the number of endothelial cells and their pseudopodia.

Taking moderate and large doses of organic iodine in the discussed conditions brings closer to the characteristics of intact animals such components of the transport profile as folding of the basal cytoplasmic membranes of follicular thyrocytes, the state of endothelial cells and their pseudopodia, the state of the microcapillary bed. The main difference between the effects of moderate and large doses of organic iodine is the peculiarities of the pericapillary space, which when taking a moderate dose is characterized by the absence of inclusions, and when taking a large dose by its moderate (normal) width.

Thus, when correcting the potentiated alimentary iodine deficiency with organic iodine, the dependence is established of the components of follicular thyrocyte transport capability profile's characteristics and the relationships between them on the fact of iodine-containing compound. An important result of the effect is the improvement of the morpho-functional state of the follicular thyrocytes' basal cytoplasmic membranes and optimization of connections between the constituent elements of the profile. The direction and depth of changes depend on the dose of iodine consumed: the condition of the profile elements and the relationships between them improved with increasing iodine intake.

Conclusions. The study of the effects of biological substances that can both potentiate and "mitigate" the phenomena of iodine deficiency, requires the joint efforts of scientists in various specialties, in particular, using appropriate mathematical approaches. Correlation portraits are an informative tool for studying the transport direction of follicular thyrocytes of the thyroid gland.

Under conditions of uncorrected potentiated alimentary iodine deficiency, there is a certain resource for transportation of the produced hormonal product by the microcapillary bed of the thyroid gland. Intake of organic iodine against the background of potentiated alimentary iodine deficiency improves the condition of the microcapillary bed of the thyroid gland. Improvement of the hemocirculation of the microcapillary bed in the thyroid gland when taking different doses of iodine under conditions of alimentary iodine deficiency potentiation is provided by various ultrastructural components of the follicular thyrocytes' transport capability profile.

The intake of moderate and large doses of organic iodine by rats under the conditions of alimentary iodine deficiency potentiation brings the state of the microcapillary bed in their thyroid glands closer to the characteristics of intact animals.


Antomonov, М. Yu. (2018). Mathematical treatment and analysis of medico-biological data. 2nd ed. кугу: Medinform. [In Russian].

Antonenko, A. M., Korshun, M. M. (2017). Environmental factors as the reasons of thyroid gland pathology risk (analytical literary review, the second report). Environment & Health, 1, 59-64. DOI: 10.32402/dovkil2017.01.059. [In Ukrainian].

Korzun, V. N., Vorontsova, T.O., Antoniuk, I. Yu. (2018). Study of the Black Sea algae influence on thyroid function and prevention of iodine deficiency. In Ecology and diseases of thyroid gland. (рр. 607-622). Кугу: Medinform. [In Ukrainian].

Kosmynina, N. S., Gnateyko, O. Z., Pechenyk, S. O., & Chaykovska, G. S. (2014). Impact of ecologically unfriendly environment on the formation of thyroid pathology in children against iodine deficiency. Child's Health, 1, 45-48. URL:[In Ukrainian].

Kravchenko, V. M., Orlova, V. O., Laryanovska, Yu. B., & Sakharova, T. S. (2017). Investigation of Laminaria aqueous extract effect on thyroid gland morphological status in rats with experimental hypothyroidism induced by sodium perchlorate. Ukrayinskyy biofarmatsevtychnyy zhurnal, 6, 50-55. DOI: 10.24959/ubphj.17.144. [In Ukrainian].

Kaminsky, O. V. (2022). Biomarkers of iodine deficiency, methods of its prevention and treatment. Miznarodnij endokrinologicnij zurnal, 18 (1), 4956. DOI: 10.22141/2224-0721.18.1.2022.1145. [In Ukrainian].

Mintser, O. P., Voronenko, Yu. V., Vlasov, V. V. (2003). Obroblennia klinichnykh i eksperymentalnykh danykh u medytsyni: navchalnyi posibnyk dlia studentiv vyshchykh navchalnykh zakladiv. [Processing of clinical and experimental data in medicine: textbook for students of higher education institutions]. Kyiv: Vyshcha shkola. [In Ukrainian].

Ryabukha, O. I. (2018). To the problem of application in hypothyrosis inorganic and organic iodine (review). Actual problems of transport medicine, 2, 7-21. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1319531. [In Ukrainian].

Ryabukha, O. I. (2021). Study of ultrastructure profile of follicular thyrocytes' transport capabilities by means of correlation analysis. Medical Informatics and Engineering, 3-4, 28-38. DOI: 10.11603/mie.1996-1960.2021.3-4.12638. [In Ukrainian].

Ryabukha, O. І. (2018). Body weight as an indicator of the organism's general condition while receiving iodine of organic and inorganic chemical origin under conditions of the optimal iodinesupplementing. Bulletin of problems in biology and medicine, 1, 1(142), 97-102. DOI: 10.29254/20774214-2018-1-1-142-97-102. [In Ukrainian].

Ryabukha, O. I. (2018). Substantiation of conceptual apparatus for mathematical studies on the hormone-producing cell activity. Bulletin of problems in biology and medicine, 3, 1(145), 234-237. DOI: 10.29254/2077-4214-2018-3-145-234-237. [In Ukrainian].

Matasar, I. T, Kravchenko, V. I., Petrishchenko, L. M., Vodopyanov, V. M. (2021). Socio-ecological and medical problems of iodine deficiency among the population of Ukraine. One Health and Nutrition Problems of Ukraine, 1, 21-33. DOI: 10.33273/26639726-2021-54-1-80-93. [In Ukrainian].

Mintser, O. P., Babintseva, L. Yu., Zaliskyi, V. M., Popova, M. A., Nadutenko, M. V., Kharchenko, N. V., Ladychuk, O. K. (2020). Theoretical approaches to the creation of systemic biomedicine (Based on the materials of the report on SRW 'System-biological and system-medical regularities of development and course of ischemic heart disease'). Medical Informatics and Engineering, 4, 16-72. DOI: 10.11603/mie.1996-1960.2020.4.11889. [In Ukrainian].

Tronko, M. D., Kravchenko, V. I. (2021). The importance of iodine for the body, its most important research and prospects of introduction for iodine prevention in Ukraine. Endocrinology, 26(1), 59-74. DOI: 10.31793/1680-1466.2021.26-1.59. [In Ukrainian].

Chukur, O. O. (2018). Dynamics of morbidity and expansion of pathology of the thyroid gland among adult population of Ukraine. Visnyk sotsialnoi hihiieny ta orhanizatsii okhorony zdorovia Ukrainy, 4, 19-25. DOI: 10.11603/1681-2786.2018.4.10020. [In Ukrainian].

Uurtio, V., Monteiro, J. M., Kandola, J., Shawe-Taylor, J., Fernandez-Reyes, D., Rousu, J. (2018). A tutorial on canonical correlation methods. ACM Computing Surveys, 50, 6 (95), 1-33. DOI: 10.1145/3136624.

Bajaj, J. K., Salwan, P., Salwan, S. (2016). Various possible toxicants involved in thyroid dysfunction: A review. J. Clin. Diagn. Res, 10 (1), FE01-FE03. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/15195.7092.

Barrett, E. J. (2016). The thyroid gland. In W. F. Boron & E. L. Boulpaep (Eds.), Medical Physiology, 3rd ed. (pp. 1006-1017). Philadelphia: Elsevier.

Bost, M., Martin, A., Orgiazzi, J. (2014). Iodine deficiency: epidemiology and nutritional prevention. Trace Elements in Medicine, 15(4), 3-7. URL:

Caplan, M. J. (2016). Functional Organization of the Cell. In W. F. Boron & E. L. Boulpaep (Eds.), Medical Physiology, 3rd ed. (pp. 8-46). Philadelphia: Elsevier.

Cherella, C. E., Wassner, A. J. (2017). Congenital hypothyroidism: insights into pathogenesis and treatment. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol, 11. DOI: 10.1186/ s13633-017-0051-0.

Cooper, D. S., Biondi, B. (2012). Subclinical thyroid disease. Lancet, 379 (9821), 1142-1154. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60276-6.

Dietrich, J. W., Landgrafe, G., Fotiadou1, E. H. (2012). TSH and thyrotropic agonists: Key actors in thyroid homeostasis. Journal of Thyroid Research, ID 351864, 29. DOI: 10.1155/2012/351864.

Aburto, N., Abudou, M., Candeias, V., Wu, T. (2014). Effect and safety of salt iodization to prevent iodine deficiency disorders: a systematic review with meta-analyses / WHO eLibrary of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA). Geneva: World Health Organization. URL:

Li X., Gao Y., Wang J., Ji G., Lu Y., Yang D., ... Zhu B. (2017). Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors and human health. J Public Health Emerg,1 (8). DOI: 10.21037/jphe.2016.12.09.

Taylor, P. N., Albrecht, D., Scholz, A., Gutierrez-Buey, G., Lazarus, J. H., Dayan, C. M., Okosieme, O. E. (2018). Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 15 (5), 301-316. DOI: 10.1038/nrendo.2018.18.

Santos, J. A. R., Christoforou, A., Trieu, K., McKenzie, B. L., Downs, S., Billot, L., . Li, M. (2019). Iodine fortification of foods and condiments, other than salt, for preventing iodine deficiency disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2 (2), CD010734. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010734. pub2.

Ishikawa, A., Kitano, J. (2012). Ecological genetics of thyroid hormone physiology in humans and wild animals. In N. K. Agrawal (Ed.), Thyroid Hormone. (pp. 37-50). London: IntechOpen.

Kesic, S. (2019). Rethinking the pragmatic systems biology and systems-theoretical biology divide: Toward a complexity-inspired epistemology of systems biomedicine. Medical Hypotheses, 131. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2019.109316.

Menon, K., Skeaff, S. (2016). Iodine: Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD). In B. Caballero, P. M.Finglas, F. Toldra (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Health. (pp. 437-443). New York: Academic Press.

Murray, J. D. (2003). Mathematical Biology ІІ: Spatial Models and Biomedical Applications (Interdisciplinary applied mathematics). 3rd ed; Vol. 18. New York (N.Y.): Springer.

Panichev, A. M. (2015). Rare earth elements: Review of medical and biological properties and their abundance in the rock materials and mineralized spring waters in the context of animal and human geophagia reasons evaluation. Achievements in the Life Sciences, 9, 2, 95-103. DOI: 10.1016/j.als.2015.12.001.

Azizi, F., Mehran, L., Hosseinpanah, F., Delshad, H. & Amouzegar, A. (2017). Primordial and primary preventions of thyroid disease. Int J Endocrinol Metab, 15 (4), e57871. DOI: 10.5812/ijem.57871.

Ryabukha, O. I. (2018). Search for markers of changes of the synthetic activity of thyrocyte under the influence of iodine reception in iodine deficiency conditions. World of Medicine and Biology, 3, 179185. DOI: 10.26724/2079-8334-2018-3-65-179-185.

Ryabukha, O. I. (2020). Conceptual approaches to the study of the thyroid gland at different levels of its integration into the body. Endocrinology and Disorders, 4 (1). DOI: 10.31579/2640-1045/047.

Ryabukha, O., Gregus, ml M. (2019). Correlation analysis as a thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and liver relationship tool for correcting hypothyroidism withorganic and inorganic iodine. Procedia Comput Sci, 160, 598-603. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2019.11.041.

Ryabukha, O. I., Fedorenko, V. I. (2021). Environmental determinants of thyroid pathology. Medicni perspective, 26 (3), 169-178. DOI: 10.26641/2307-0404.2021.3.242253.

Ryabukha, O., Dronyuk, I. (2018). The portraits creating method by correlation analysis of hormone-producing cells data. CEUR Workshop Proc, 2255, 135-145. URL:

Ryabukha, O., Dronyuk, I. (2021). Modern аpproaches to the applying of mathematical methods in the analysis of the transport direction of follicular thyrocytes. CEUR Workshop Proc, 3038, 302-316. URL:

Franceschi, C., Ostan, R., Mariotti, S., Monti D., & Vitale G. (2019). The aging thyroid: A reappraisal within the geroscience integrated perspective. Endocrine Reviews, 40 (5), 1250-1270. DOI: 10.1210/ er.2018-00170.

Tiwari, M. (2012). A mathematical applications into the cells. J Nat Sci Biol Med, 3 (1), 19-23. DOI: 10.4103/0976-9668.95937.



How to Cite