THE INFLUENCE OF GHRELIN AND LEPTIN ON METABOLIC SYNDROME INDICATORS UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH-CALORIE DIETS IN THE EXPERIMENT
Keywords:ghrelin, leptin, insulin resistance, obesity, carbohydrate metabolism, blood lipid spectrum
Introduction. Obesity is a trigger for development of insulin resistance, which is a key link in pathogenesis of metabolic diseases.
The aim of the study – to study the ratio of ghrelin and leptin secretion, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats on the background of high-calorie diets.
Research Methods. The study was carried out on adult male rats, which were kept on diet with high fructose (group 1) and fat (group 2) content. Ghrelin and leptin hormones content, markers of carbohydrate metabolism, blood lipid spectrum were determined in serum of experimental animals.
Results and Discussion. In animals of groups 1 and 2 decrease of ghrelin level by 33.67 and 46.54 %, leptin – by 52.62 and 68.62 %, respectively, relative to data in intact animals was detected. Under conditions of fructose loading, development of insulin resistance was observed, what is indicated by growth of glucose content by 76.57 %, insulin – by 47.96 %, HOMA-IR index – in 2.3 times relative to control. Concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in whole blood increased in two times relative to data in intact rats. In animals on the background of high-fat diet the unidirectional changes (increased concentration of glucose by 27.69 %, insulin – by 38.47 % in blood serum, HbA1c in whole blood – by 82.05 % regarding to data in intact animals) were observed. HOMA-IR index in animals on a background of high-fat diet increased by 79.14 % relative to control. Changes of carbohydrate metabolism significantly affected lipid spectrum of blood, in particular, increased content of total cholesterol by 41.66 % and 49.24 %, low density lipoproteins by 73.21 % and 80.35 % and triglycerides by 52.38 % and 73.81 % against the background of decrease high density lipoproteins by 47.96 % and 26.54 % in animals with insulin resistance and obesity, respectively. There is close correlation between ghrelin and leptin content and carbohydrate (concentration of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index) and fat metabolism parameters (atherogenic index, total cholesterol, triglycerides).
Conclusions. Keeping animals on high-calorie diet (high-carbohydrate or high-fat) is accompanied by development of insulin resistance and secondary dyslipidemia. Concentrations of ghrelin and leptin significantly affect on the development of individual components of metabolic syndrome.
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