Medical and Clinical Chemistry <p><em><span lang="EN-US">Applied research journal, dedicated to the questions of molecular mechanisms of pathology development, biochemistry in diagnostics and treatment, specifically, cardio-vascular diseases, biochemical hepatology and nephrology, biochemistry of endocrinology, pathological chemistry of inherited diseases and emergency conditions, biochemistry in surgical field, neurochemistry and pathological chemistry of the brain, immunochemistry, xenobiochemistry, problems and experience in teaching biological and medical chemistry. The journal is included in the list of professional journals, where results of Ph.D. program research in biological, pharmaceutical and medical sciences can be published.&nbsp;</span></em><br><em><strong><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">ISSN&nbsp;</span>2414-9934<span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;(Online), ISSN 2410-681X (Print)</span></span></strong></em><br><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">The Journal is included in "<a href="">The List of Scientific Professional Journals approved by Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine"</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Medicine, and </strong></span></span></em><strong><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">Biology,</span></span></em><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;and&nbsp;</span></span></em><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span></span></em>Рharmacology </strong><em style="font-family: 'Noto Sans', Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;"><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB"><strong>(category B, specialties 091, 221,222, 226, </strong>according to the Order of Ministry of Education and Science 11.07.2019 № 975)&nbsp;</span></span></em></p> Ternopil National Medical University en-US Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2410-681X INVESTIGATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF ERYNGIUM PLANUM L. <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The liver is a vital organ that provides many functions in the human body. Alcohol, unhealthy foods, long-term medication, infectious or autoimmune diseases can cause serious diseases of the hepatobiliary system, so it is important to develop and study new phytopreparations with hepatoprotective activity.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – investigation of hepatoprotective activity of Eryngium planum L.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The study of hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Eryngium planum L. was performed on white male rats weighing 180–250 g on the model of acute carbon tetrachloride hepatitis according to the Stefanov's method. “Silibor” is a hepatoprotector which was used as a comparison drug.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> Administration of carbon tetrachloride to experimental animals resulted in acute liver damage. In the group of untreated animals, liver damage was accompanied by a significant increase in the activity of ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and TBA-active products. Biochemical parameters of blood serum and liver homogenate in the group of animals that received extracts of Eryngium planum L. indicate less liver damage compared to the group of animals that did not receive treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Extracts of Eryngium planum L. show hepatoprotective activity in acute liver disease with carbon tetrachloride.</p> K. V. Hnatoiko A. R. Hrytsyk Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 5 8 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13032 PROSTAGLANDIN AND BRADYKININ MECHANISMS OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTION OF PROPOXAZEPAM: MOLECULAR DOCKING DATA <p class="a"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Prostaglandins and bradykinin are important compounds involved in the onset and transmission of pain. Innovative drug propoxazepam, created at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and SLC "INTERCHEM" has an original pharmacodynamic profile, as it simultaneously inhibits acute and chronic pain with components of anti-inflammatory and anticonvulsant action.</p> <p class="a"><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to learn the possibility of propoxazepam interaction with cyclooxygenases I and II and the bradykinin receptor based on the results of molecular docking.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The molecular docking procedure was performed using iGEMDOCK v2.1, the structure of the compounds was optimized for the internal energy (Avogadro (v 1.2.0) and presented in *.pdb format).</p> <p class="a"><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> The values of free energy of interaction of propoxazepam and some reference compounds with macromolecules of COX I, COX II and bradykinin were calculated, and the amino acid residues involved in these processes were determined. The interaction energy of propoxazepam with COX I and COX II was found to be lower than for other reference compounds. The average binding energy of COX I compared to the reference compounds (acetylsalicylate, ketorolac, diclofenac, celecoxib) is the lowest for propoxazepam.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Based on the obtained molecular docking data, it can be concluded that propoxazepam does not interact sufficiently with the key enzyme of prostaglandin synthesis – COX I (mostly weak Van-der-Waals bonds are formed, and the identified sites of interaction are nonspecific). Interaction with COX II may be ineffective because the binding sites are located close to the active site and involve amino acid residues of the same domain. Antagonism with interaction with the type 1 bradykinin receptor is likely, as evidenced by the same binding sites for the endogenous ligand bradykinin and the high mean binding energy.</p> V. B. Larionov A. S. Akisheva M. Ya. Holovenko O. A. Makarenko I. Yu. Borysiuk Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 9 19 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13033 FEATURES OF THE STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE MYOCARDIUM DEPENDING ON ST2 AND TROPONINE I PLASMA LEVELS IN NSTEMI PATIENTS <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The prevalence of myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation and the risk of adverse events in the long term encourage the search for and study of non-invasive predictors of destabilization of the di­sease. ST2 is considered as one of such markers.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to determine the features of the structural and functional condition of the myocardium depending on the levels of ST2 and troponin I in plasma in patients with NSTEMI.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>The study involved 200 patients with NSTEMI aged 38 to 80 years. All patients were examined according to the current treatment protocol for patients with acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation, plasma levels of ST2 and troponin I were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>The dependence of ST2 level and the absence of such for troponin I level in plasma with the value of the left ventricular myocardial mass index was established. The results of the analysis show that the value of the left ventricular myocardial mass index &gt;115 g/m<sup>2</sup> in patients with NSTEMI is associated with a higher level of ST2 in plasma (median – 43.7 ng/ml). Analysis of the level of ST2 and troponin I in plasma in NSTEMI patients depending on the value of the relative myocardial wall thickness showed no statistically significant dependence of factors on its value. However, there was a tendency in the frequency of registration of cases of relative myocardial wall thickness of different sizes in the case of associations of relatively high levels of ST2 and troponin I. The data show that in the case of relatively high levels of ST2 parallel change in plasma with different values ​​of the relative myocardial wall thickness.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>ST2 levels, regardless of troponin I levels, are associated with an increase in left ventricular myocardial mass index as opposed to relative myocardial wall thickness. Determination of elevated ST2 levels in the early period tends to electrical instability of the myocardium, which requires appropriate preventive measures in this category of patients.</p> V. I. Maslovskyi Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 20 25 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.12678 RESEARCH ON DETERMINATION OF QUANTITATIVE QUERCETIN CONTENT IN COMBINED GEL FOR TREATMENT OF RADIATION SKIN DAMAGE <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Increased interest in phytotherapy can be explained mainly by its relative safety and effectiveness, as well as the lower cost of drugs derived from herbal raw materials, compared to synthetic remedies. With this in mind, as a result of experimental research, we have developed a technology for complex processing of large grass stonecrops in order to obtain juice and aqueous extract from the pomace after squeezing the juice and investigated their quality indicators.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to conduct experimental research to develop methods for determining the quantitative content of quercetin in the combined gel under the conditional name “Biosedum Plus” for the treatment of radiation damage to the skin.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>The objects of the study were model samples of the combined gel. TLC plates with a layer of silica gel and a fluorescent indicator F<sub>254</sub> (s. HX04954354, Merk, Germany), a standard sample of quercetin, Evolution 60s spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA), analytical scales “AXIS” (Poland), measuring instruments of class A and reagents that meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPhU) were used.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> An intensely expressed maximum absorption of the substance at a wavelength of 438 nm after the reaction with boric acid was chosen to develop the method of quantitative determination of quercetin in the studied gel by the method of absorption spectrophotometry in the visible region. The specificity of the technique was proved by the formation of a coloured complex of quercetin with boric acid in the presence of a mixture of formic and acetic acids. The precision of the experimental results was characterized by low standard deviation in the studied range of quercetin concentrations (RSD = 0.46 %), and the systematic error was 0.01 %, the correlation coefficient of the proposed method r = 0.9995. When studying the robustness of the method, it was found that the stability of the absorption of solutions over time is observed after 30 minutes and the solutions are stable for 60 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>A method of spectrophotometric quantitative determination of quercetin in a gel after the reaction of formation of a complex with boric acid at a wavelength of 438 nm was developed. According to such validation characteristics as linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness, the method is correct (using eligibility criteria for content tolerances + 5.0 %).</p> O. I. Burban L. I. Vyshnevska Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 26 31 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13034 EFFICACY OF L-ORNITHIN L-ASPARATE IN THE PREVENTION OF ENDOTOXICOSIS AND MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATORY DISFUNCTION IN ACUTE TOXIC HEPATITIS <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The study of the mechanisms of action of L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA) in acute toxic hepatitis still remains as an actual problem. Mitochondrial respiratory disorders and endotoxicosis are known to be the ­leading pathogenetic causes in the mechanism of acute toxic hepatitis, as they contribute to the formation of reactive oxygen species and excessive inflammation, which can eventually lead to pathological liver remodeling.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to determine the effectiveness of LOLA in preventing endotoxicosis and the impact of the drug on mitochondrial respiration in acute toxic liver disease induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and to investigate the importance of NO synthesis in these effects.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>The study was performed on 24 white adult male rats. Acute toxic hepatitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of carbon tetrachloride (2 g/kg). Corrective agents were administered for 2 days. The study was performed on the third day. LOLA was administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) – 10 mg/kg. Determination of the content of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), ceruloplasmin (CP), medium mass molecules (MMM<sub>1</sub> and MMM<sub>2</sub>), cytochrome oxidase activity, succinate dehydrogenase was performed according to standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results and </strong><strong>Discussion.</strong> In acute toxic hepatitis, the content of LPO increased by 72.64 %, MMM<sub>1</sub> and MMM<sub>2</sub><sub> </sub>– by 38.32 % and 60.65 %, respectively, CP – by 31.94 %. After LOLA administration, the production of LPO was suppressed by 20.22 %, the content of MMM<sub>1</sub> and MMM<sub>2</sub> decreased by 16.88 % and 25 %, CP – by 14.48 %. In CCl4-induced hepatitis, the activity of cytochrome oxidase was suppressed by 25 % and succinate dehydrogenase by 23.46 %. In the group of treated LOLA rats there was an increase in the activity of these enzymes by 8.85 % and 5.42 %, respectively. Concomitant use of L-NAME inhibited all the effects of LOLA, as the content of LPO remained 31.51 % higher, MMM<sub>1</sub> and MMM<sub>2</sub> – 22.92 % and 37.33 % higher, CP – 15.34 % higher, while the activity of cytochrome oxidase decreased by 7.66 %, and succinate dehydrogenase activity reduced by 8.82 %.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> LOLA prevents endotoxicosis caused by CCl<sub>4</sub>-induced hepatitis and is potentially effective in restoring mitochondrial respiration. These effects of LOLA are realized through a NO-dependent mechanism.</p> V. A. Datsko О. М. Oleshchuk H. Ya. Loi M. P. Klantsa T. V. Datsko M. I. Lukaniuk V. V. Cherniashova А. Z. Nychyk Ya. І. Ivankiv V. P. Pyda A. V. Chornomydz Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 32 38 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.12683 COCARNIT CORRECTION OF PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN SALIVARY GLANDS OF RATS IN CONDITIONS OF DIABETIC NEUROPATHY <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>One of the most common complications of diabetes is the development of diabetic polyneuropathy, the effects of which on the salivary glands have not been sufficiently studied. The search for pharmacological correction based on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the development of pathological changes in the salivary glands in diabetic neuropathy remains relevant.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the </strong><strong>study</strong> – to study the effect of streptozocin-induced diabetic neuropathy on the development of pathological changes in the salivary glands of rats, as well as substantiating the feasibility of using the drug Cocarnit under these conditions.</p> <p><strong>Research </strong><strong>Methods.</strong> Diabetic polyneuropathy in rats was induced by a single injection of sreptozocin (Streptozocin, Sigma, USA) at a dose of 65 mg/kg. The development of neuropathy was recorded with analgesimeter according to the Randall-Selitto method. Cocarnit (World Medicine) (1 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly to rats for 9&nbsp;days to correct the changes. In the homogenate of the mandibular salivary glands of rats, we determined the activity of α-amylase, catalase, level of medium weight molecules, TBA-active products and oxidatively modified proteins, total proteolytic and total antitryptic activity.</p> <p><strong>Results and </strong><strong>Discussion.</strong> Experiments showed that the administration of streptozocin to animals resulted in an increase in the pain sensitivity threshold (PST) on all days of measurement compared to baseline. In rats injected with Cocarnit for 9 days, the PST was lower compared to the group of rats with diabetic polyneuropathy without correction and did not differ from the level of PST in the control. The development of diabetic neuropathy in the mandibular salivary glands of animals decreased amylalytic activity, increased antitryptic activity without changes in proteinase activity, and increased the content of TBA-active products compared to these indicators in control animals. Cocarnit administration for 9 days in diabetic neuropathy resulted in increased amylase activity, normalization of total antitryptic activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat salivary glands compared to the uncorrected neuropathy model.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Cocarnit administration restored pain sensitivity to control values. Cocarnit normalized the suppressed protein-synthetic function of the salivary glands of rats in diabetic neuropathy and inhibited the development of oxidative stress.</p> K. V. Tykhonovych T. D. Kryvoruchko K. S. Neporada S. M. Berehovyi Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 39 45 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13035 THE EFFECT OF ZINC SULFATE, SODIUM THIOSULFATE, LIPOIC ACID, AND TAURINE ON HYDROGEN SULFIDE METABOLISM IN KIDNEYS OF RATS WITH DIET-INDUCED OBESITY <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The problem of prevention and correction of nephropathy in obesity is becoming increasingly important. The kidneys synthesize a multifunctional regulator of hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S), the metabolism of which in obesity can accelerate the formation of chronic kidney disease. The search for metabolic correctors that could normalize H<sub>2</sub>S metabolism in the kidneys in obesity and would not show a lipogenic effect remains relevant. This effect can be seen in cofactors and co-substrates of thiosulfate-dependent H<sub>2</sub>S metabolism.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to establish the effect of zinc sulfate, sodium thiosulfate, lipoic acid, and taurine on hydrogen sulfide metabolism in kidneys of rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO).</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> Experiments were performed on 60 white laboratory male rats in accordance with the principles of bioethics (Strasbourg, 1986; Kyiv, 2001). DIO was induced in 50 rats by dieting on a high-calorie high-fat diet (energy value 4.33 kcal/g) for 10 weeks. The control group (10 rats) received a standard diet (energy value 2.71 kcal/g). Correctors of H<sub>2</sub>S metabolism (zinc sulfate, sodium thiosulfate, lipoic acid, taurine) were administered during the last 2 weeks. The activity of the enzymes of H<sub>2</sub>S metabolism was determined in kidney homogenates. Statistical processing was performed in the package IBM Statistics SPSS 26, differences were assessed in the Kraskel – Wallis test at a significance level of p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The following H<sub>2</sub>S metabolism disorders in the kidneys were detected in DIO rats: decreased activity of PLP-dependent transsulfuration enzymes (cystathionine-γ-lyase, cystathionine-β-synthase, cysteine aminotransferase), decreased activity of thiosulfate-dependent pathways of H<sub>2</sub>S metabolism (thiosulfate (thiol) sulfurtransferase, thioredoxin reductase, sulfite oxidase) and low H<sub>2</sub>S level, which correlated with an increase in body mass index and index Lee. Zinc sulfate, lipoic acid, sodium thiosulfate and taurine increased the level of H<sub>2</sub>S and the activity of H<sub>2</sub>S-synthesizing enzymes of transsulfuration and thiosulfate-dependent pathways in the kidneys (1.4–1.5 times, p &lt;0.01), without causing lipogenic effect in rats with DIO.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Zinc sulfate, lipoic acid, sodium thiosulfate effectively reduce H<sub>2</sub>S metabolism disorders in the kidneys which were induced by high-calorie high-fat diet and inhibit the development of obesity in rats.</p> V. V. Blazhchenko N. V. Zaichko Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 46 52 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13036 ЗМІНИ ЦИТОКІНОВОГО ПРОФІЛЮ ТА УРАЖЕННЯ МІОКАРДА ЗА УМОВ ПОСТРЕЗЕКЦІЙНОЇ ПОРТАЛЬНОЇ ГІПЕРТЕНЗІЇ <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Removal of significant volumes of liver parenchyma leads to pronounced changes in hemodynamics in the portal hepatic vein system and in the great circle of blood circulation, which affects the structure of the myocardium.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to learn the features of the cytokine profile and myocardial damage at postresection portal hypertension. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> 67 white male rats, which were divided into 3 groups, were studied. Group 1 – 20 intact animals, group 2 – 30 rats with postresection portal hypertension, group 3 – 17 animals with postresection portal hypertension and multiorgan failure. Thirty days after the start of the experiment, rats were euthanized by bloodletting under thiopental anesthesia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 2 (IL-2), 6 (IL-6), 10 (IL-10) was determined. Micronutrients were made of the ventricles of the heart, which histostereometrically determined the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio in cardiomyocytes, relative volumes of cardiomyocytes, capillaries, stroma, capillary-cardiomyocyte, stromal-cardiomyocyte ratio, relative volumes damage of cardiomyocytes. Quantitative indicators were processed statistically. Correlation analysis was also performed between cytokine levels and ventricular histostereometric parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> In the simulated experimental conditions, disproportionate, unbalanced growth of cytokines and structural changes in the ventricles of the heart were detected. Strong positive correlations were found between cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and relative stroma and volumes damaged cardiomyocytes. Changes in the cytokine profile and the predominant structural rearrangement of the left ventricle dominated the combination of postresection portal hypertension with multiorgan failure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Removal of 58.1 % of the liver parenchyma in laboratory adult white male rats is complicated by postresection portal hypertension, tension and severe imbalance of cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-a in serum. The degree of cytokine disturbances in the simulated pathology correlates with the relative volumes of damaged cardiomyocytes and stroma in the ventricles of the heart, morphological changes in which dominate in the left ventricle and in combination with postresection portal with multiorgan failure.</p> M. S. Hnatiuk N. M. Hdanska L. V. Tatarchuk N. Ya. Monastyrska Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 53 57 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13037 DETERMINATION OF CAROTINOID CONTENT IN INFLORESCENCES OF ACHILLEA COLLINA AND ACHILLEA MICRANTHOIDES <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The search for new compounds capable of inhibiting free radical oxidation at various stages of the pathological process is relevant today. Taking into account the prospects of practical use, antioxidants attract special attention. Priority and perspective is the use of natural bioantioxidants as those that have fewer side effects. Common groups of bioantioxidants include fat-soluble endogenous antioxidants – carotenoids, which have pronounced antioxidant properties. The main function of carotenoids in plant cells and the human body is to protect its structures from the damaging effects of free radicals. Given the high biological activity of carotenoids, it is advisable to study promising species of the genus Achillea L. – Achillea collina J. Becker ex Reichenb. and Achillea micrantoides Klok. Et Krytzka, which are widespread in Ukraine, have a long vegetation period, are promising for pharmacognostic and pharmacological study.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to identify and quantify the content of carotenoids in inflorescences of Achillea collina and Achillea micrantoides harvested in different regions of Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>Inflorescences of Achillea collina and Achillea micrantoides were the material for the study. Raw materials were collected on the territory of Zaporizhzhia, Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson, Mykolaiv, Kharkiv regions during the growing season (July&nbsp;– October) in 2019–2020. The qualitative composition of carotenoids was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) on plates "Silufol UF-254" ("Avalier", Czech Republic), using the mobile phases – hexane – acetone (95:5), hexane – benzene – acetone (1:1:1) and standard samples of β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin. To determine the quantitative content of the sum of carotenoids we used the method of UV spectroscopy, measuring the optical density on a spectrophotometer "Specord-200 UV/Vis Lambda 365 (Analytic Jena)" at wavelengths λ=450–479 nm in a cuvette with a layer thickness of 10 mm. Β-carotene and lutein (LGC Standards, England) were used as a reference solution.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> The TLC method identified substances belonging to carotenoids (substance 1: Rf=0.73, brown in the UV area; substance 2: Rf=0.90, orange in the UV area). The quantitative content of the amount of carotenoids in inflorescences of Achillea collina was in the range of 13.72–16.28&nbsp;mg&nbsp;%, in inflorescen­ces of Achillea micrantoides – in the range of 15.34–17.22&nbsp;mg&nbsp;%. The highest quantitative content of the amount of carotenoids was observed in inflorescences of Achillea collina harvested in Henichesk, Kherson region (17.22±2.89)&nbsp;mg&nbsp;%, slightly lower – in inflorescences of Achillea micrantoides harvested in Lozova, Kharkiv region (16.28±2.75) mg %.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Carotenoids were identified by TLC in inflorescences of Achillea collina and Achillea micrantoides. It was found that the quantitative content of the amount of carotenoids in inflorescences of Achillea collina harvested in different regions was in the range of 13.72–16.28 mg %, in inflorescences of Achillea micrantoides – in the range of 15.34–17.22 mg %. Given the presence of carotenoids with antioxidant properties (according to the literature), it is important to further study the raw materials of the genus Achillea in order to create new drugs.</p> I. F. Duiun S. M. Marchyshyn Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 58 62 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13038 STUDY OF PHYLA SCABERRIMA ESSENTIAL OIL (JUSS. EX PERS.) MOLDENKE LEAVES <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>.</strong> Phyla scaberrima (Juss. Ex Pers.) Moldenke (Lippia dulcis Trevir.) from the Verbenaceae family is a perennial herbaceous plant which leaves have a characteristic lemon scent and sweet taste. Central America and Mexico are homelands of Phyla scaberrima. Phyla scaberrima has long been used in Mexico and Central America as a sweetener and as a medicinal plant, and has been used to treat colds, coughs, bronchitis, and digestive disorders as an anti-inflammatory, antitussive, antipyretic, expectorant, emollient, and diuretic agent. Despite numerous studies, the chemical composition of Phyla scaberrima remains poorly understood, especially in terms of the component composition of the essential oil.</p> <p><strong>The aim of </strong><strong>the study</strong> – to determine the component composition of the essential oil in the leaves of Phyla scaberrima.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods</strong><strong>.</strong> Determination of the component composition of volatile compounds was performed by gas chromato-mass spectrometry on an Agilent Technology 6890N chromatograph. To identify the components, the obtained spectra were considered on the basis of general laws of fragmentation of molecules of organic compounds under the action of electron impact, as well as by comparing the results with data from NIST02 mass spectrum libraries with a total spectrum of more than 470000 in combination the content was determined by the method of internal standards.</p> <p><strong>Results and </strong><strong>D</strong><strong>iscussion. </strong>As a result of the researches 38 components of essential oil were found, of which 35 were identified in Phyla scaberrima leaves. The total content of the identified components of the studied essential oil was 693.46 μg/g. The dominant component of the essential oil of Phyla scaberrima leaves is the bicyclic monoterpenoid 1S-Camphor; among the sesquiterpenoids, the mononocyclic sesquiterpenoid α-Bisabolol, the bicyclic sesquiterpenoids caryophyllene, and δ-Cadinenes dominate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The component composition of the essential oil of Phyla scaberrima leaves was studied by gas chromato-mass spectrometry, in which 38 components were found, of which 35 were identified. The following pharmacologically important components were found in a significant amount in the essential oil of Phyla scaberrima leaves – camphor, limonene, camphene from monoterpenoids, α-Bisabolol, caryophyllene, δ-Cadinenes, copaene, α-bisabolene from sesquiterpenoids, laxitopene prospects for further technological and pharmacological research of Phyla scaberrima raw materials.</p> V. M. Kishchuk V. V. Yurkiv I. V. Burmas N. B. Husiak E. A. Parashchuk Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 63 67 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13039 RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF TANACETUM EXTRACT (TANACETUM PARTHENIUM L.) ON THE CONDITION OF RAT JOINTS WITH SIMULATED ADJUVANT ARTHRITIS <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Improving the pharmacotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains an urgent task of modern pharmacology. One of the ways to solve this problem is to find and develop tools with anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective properties based on plant materials</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to evaluate the effectiveness of a thick extract of the marigold herb (Tanacetum parthenium L.) in chronic inflammation (adjuvant arthritis) in rats according to histological examination.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> Histological examination of the joints of rats with simulated Freund's adjuvant (0.1 ml once subcutaneously at the base of the tail) arthritis. The joints separated from the skin and muscles were fixed in 10 % neutral formalin solution, after washing in running water decalcified in 5 % nitric acid solution for 14–16 days. After ascending, the tissue concentration was poured into celloidin-paraffin according to standard methods. Frontal sections 6–8 μm thick were made from the blocks, at least three sections from each joint. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. All stages of micropreparation were performed in accordance with OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) recommendations. Microscopic examination was performed under a microscope Granum Trino R 6003 (DSM-310). Statistical processing of the obtained digital data was performed using the non-parametric criterion (Statistics 6, Mann-Whitney U Test, Fisher test).</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> The introduction of Freund's adjuvant to rats leads to the development of morphological signs of arthritis of the ankle joints: proliferative synovitis; formation of pannus; destructive-dystrophic changes of cartilage tissue; inflammatory infiltration in periarticular tissues. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium has a pronounced normalizing effect on morphological changes in rat joints in adjuvant arthritis. Cartilage destruction is absent, hyperplasia of the covering tissues occurs six times less often than in untreated animals. Residual effects in periarticular tissues are noted. The use of chestnut extract reduced the number of animals with destruction of articular cartilage by 2.6 times compared with control pathology and the number of animals with severe inflammation in the synovial membrane and periarticular tissues by 3 times.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The ability of maroon extract to reduce the severity of articular cartilage destruction, inflammation in the synovial membrane and periarticular tissues in rats with a model of adjuvant arthritis.</p> І. V. Kyrychenko O. Ya. Mishchenko Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 68 76 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13040 DETERMINATION OF QUANTITATIVE CONTENT OF AMINO ACIDS IN LIQUID EXTRACT OF CREEPING THYME, CHOICE OF CRITERIA OF ACCEPTABILITY <p><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;According to the literature, it is known that creeping thyme (CT) contains a diverse complex of biologically active substances (BAS). Important flavonoids, phenolic acids, polysaccharides characterized by anti-inflammatory, mucolytic, secretolytic, antiviral and antimicrobial action are among the BAS of thyme herb. Previous studies have also established the presence of amino acids in raw materials that perform important functions in the human body. In recent years, the number of studies related to their study has increased significantly. Pharmaceutical development on the basis of thick extract of CT and essential oil of thyme involved obtaining a liquid extract of CT, which was obtained by a suitably selected method with maximum preservation and reproduction of BAS of this medicinal plant material. In the previous work, we covered the issue of identification of amino acids in the studied extract and selected the identification marker of the quality of liquid extract of CT – glycine. However, for its standardization it is necessary to determine not only their qualitative composition, but also the quantitative content, which will further offer indicators of quality of liquid extract of the state of emergency and choose the appropriate eligibility criteria.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – quantitative determination of amino acids in liquid extract of CT, selection of appro­priate acceptance criteria.</p> <p><strong>Research М</strong><strong>ethods.</strong> Spectrophotometer "Cary-50", liquid extract of creeping thyme, FSЕ: glycine (Sigma), 0.2&nbsp;% ninhydrin solution R, water bath.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>Determination of amino acids in the studied extract of creeping thyme was performed by spectrophotometry in the visible part of the spectrum using the known and used photometric reaction to form a colored compound of amino acids with ninhydrin. It was found that the content of amino acids varies within certain limits and is determined by their content in the raw material. Therefore, in order to standardize the liquid extract of CT, you can choose a quantitative quality criterion – the content of amino acids and offer appropriate acceptance criteria – not less than 0.03 % in terms of glycine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Quantitative determination of amino acids in liquid extract of CT was performed. As a result of the experiment, their quantitative content was determined and appropriate eligibility criteria were proposed.</p> N. O. Zarivna N. V. Horlachuk Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 1 77 80 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2022.i1.13041