Medical and Clinical Chemistry <p><em><span lang="EN-US">Applied research journal, dedicated to the questions of molecular mechanisms of pathology development, biochemistry in diagnostics and treatment, specifically, cardio-vascular diseases, biochemical hepatology and nephrology, biochemistry of endocrinology, pathological chemistry of inherited diseases and emergency conditions, biochemistry in surgical field, neurochemistry and pathological chemistry of the brain, immunochemistry, xenobiochemistry, problems and experience in teaching biological and medical chemistry. The journal is included in the list of professional journals, where results of Ph.D. program research in biological, pharmaceutical and medical sciences can be published.&nbsp;</span></em><br><em><strong><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">ISSN&nbsp;</span>2414-9934<span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;(Online), ISSN 2410-681X (Print)</span></span></strong></em><br><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">The Journal is included in "<a href="">The List of Scientific Professional Journals approved by Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine"</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Medicine, and </strong></span></span></em><strong><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">Biology,</span></span></em><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;and&nbsp;</span></span></em><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span></span></em>Рharmacology </strong><em style="font-family: 'Noto Sans', Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;"><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB"><strong>(category B, specialties 091, 221,222, 226, </strong>according to the Order of Ministry of Education and Science 11.07.2019 № 975)&nbsp;</span></span></em></p> Ternopil National Medical University en-US Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2410-681X EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE INDICATORS IN NSTEMI PATIENTS DEPENDING ON PLASMA LEVEL ST2, NATURE OF CORONARY ARTERIES LESION AND OTHER CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The prevalence of myocardial infarction and its leading role in the structure of overall and cardiovascular mortality encourages the search for predictors of adverse disease and the search for optimal means to prevent adverse events and improve the quality of life of this category of patients.</p> <p><strong>The aim</strong> <strong>of the study</strong> – to evaluate quality of life in NSTEMI patients based on plasma ST2 levels, the nature of coronary artery disease, and other clinical characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>The study involved 200 patients with NSTEMI aged 38 to 80 years. All patients were examined according to the current treatment protocol for patients with acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation, plasma ST2 levels were determined and quality of life was assessed using the MIDAS-35 questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong> and Discussion. </strong>Spearman's rank correlation showed that the level of physical activity (the first subscale of MIDAS-35) of patients with NSTEMI is directly correlated with the presence of frequent ventricular extra­systoles and paroxysms of ventricular tachycardia recorded during ECG monitoring on day 1 of NSTEMI, the seve­rity of coronary artery lesions and plasma ST2 levels determined on the 1st day of hospitalization. Similar patterns are found in subscales 2, 4, 5. Subscale 6 revealed the presence of a correlation only with the presence of frequent ventricular tachycardia. Subscales 3 and 7 did not show correlations with the studied parameters.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Elevated ST2 levels, hemodynamically significant coronary artery lesions and the presence of acute arrhythmias in the early period of NSTEMI have been found to significantly affect quality of life as determined by the MIDAS-35 questionnaire. The impact on remodeling processes and the strategy of early invasive treatment in patients with NSTEMI will not only reduce the likelihood of complications, but also improve the quality of life of this category of patients.</p> V. I. Maslovskyi Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 5 9 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12673 INDICATORS OF ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION IN RATS WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA UNDER TOXIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) occupies an important place among urological diseases of older men with a tendency to increase. The most common social problem is alcohol consumption. Its toxic effects are found in many systems and organs, because it easily interacts with many processes of the body. Due to the syndrome of endogenous intoxication, we can evaluate a lot of data and get results on the course of many diseases by the level of middle mass molecules and changes in erythrocyte index.</p> <p><strong>The aim </strong><strong>of the study</strong> – to analyze the changes in endogenous intoxication by the level of middle mass molecules and changes in erythrocyte index in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia with combined action of ethanol.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The experimental animals were divided into 4 groups: Group I (control group) rats, which were injected for 28 days with distilled water orally; Group II – which for 28 days were injected with ethanol 40 % ethanol solution at a rate of 2 ml/100 g of body weight orally 1 time per day. In animals of group III, the development of BPH was simulated by subcutaneous administration of ampule 5 % testosterone at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg once a day for 28 days; Group IV (12 animals) – reproduced a model of BPH with additional toxic effects of 40 % ethanol solution at the rate of 2 ml/100 g of body weight orally once a day for 28 days.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> As a result of studies we conducted in animals of different experimental groups under the conditions of experimental modeling of benign prostatic hyperplasia, it was found that there is a gradual increase in endogenous intoxication on day 7, 14, 21 of the experiment. All EI markers reached the highest values on day 21 of the study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Therefore, we were able to identify significant changes and disturbances of intoxication in animals under the toxic action of ethanol, which is important for their pathogenesis.</p> Yu. I. Makodrai I. M. Klishch Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 10 14 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12727 DYNAMICS OF THE ACTIVITY OF LIPID PEROXIDATION PROCESSES IN LATE PERIOD OF CRANIOSKELETAL INJURY IN CASE OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CORRECTION WITH ARMADINE <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Currently, injuries are considered as relevant medical and social problem of the nowadays. Recently, the probability of developing traumatic disease has increased significantly based on the background of concomitant diffuse liver disease, the frequency of which is constantly increasing. One of the objects of the body's systemic response to injury is the liver, where lipid peroxidation is significantly enhanced due to traumatic disease.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to investigate the dynamics of lipid peroxidation processes in late period of cranioskeletal trauma (CST) in case of chronic hepatitis and the effectiveness of correction with armadine.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>The experiments were performed on 136 nonlinear white male rats weighting 200–220 g. In the first experimental group (EG-1) after the modelling of chronic hepatitis (Siegers C. P. et al., 1982), cranioskeletal trauma (CST) was simulated. In the second experimental group (EG-2) only CST was modeled. In the third study group (EG-3), chronic hepatitis was induced, CST was simulated and armadine at a dose of 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally every day for correction starting from 15 days after CST. Animals of the experimental groups were removed from the experiment 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after injury. In the control and experimental groups, the content of reagents for thiobarbituric acid (TBA-active products of LPO) was determined in the liver.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>Modelling of CST in the period of late manifestations of traumatic disease is accompanied by activation of lipid peroxidation processes in the liver. The content of TBA-active products of LPO in the liver throughout the experiment was significantly higher than in the control group. Under the conditions of application of CST with the concomitant chronic hepatitis, the content of TBA-active products of LPO in the liver increased and significantly exceeded the group of injured animals without concomitant chronic hepatitis. The use of armadine helped to reduce the intensity of lipid peroxidation in the liver under the conditions of CST on the background of chronic hepatitis. Compared with animals without correction, the result was statistically significant after 21 and 35&nbsp;days.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong> Modeling of CST on the background of chronic hepatitis in the period of late manifestations of traumatic disease causes a prolonged increase in the activity of lipid peroxidation in the liver, which up to 35 days of the experiment does not reach the level of control. The use of armadine compared with animals without correction causes a decrease in the content of TBA-active products of the liver starting from the second day of the experiment.</p> O. O. Prokhorenko H. Yu. Tsymbaliuk Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 15 21 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12728 AGE FEATURES OF CHANGES OF INDICATORS IN ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION AND MEMBRANE STATE UNDER HEAVY METALS AND GLYPHOSATE ACTION <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Heavy metals are group of xenobiotic which have the greatest stability in the environment and polytropic toxins for humanity. Heavy metals are blocking functional-active groups of proteins and structural enzymes, namely blocking sulfhydryl (thiol) group (SH). Under the action of heavy metals, most proteins lose their physicochemical and biological properties, which leads to disruption of protein and other metabolism.</p> <p><strong>The aim</strong> <strong>of the study</strong> – to investigate the effect of lead acetate, copper sulfate and glyphosate (roundup) and the cysteyl-histidyl-tyrosyl-histidyl-isoleucine on changes in endogenous intoxication and membrane status in rats of different ages.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The experiment was carried out on lab nonlinear white rats – males of three age periods: puberty, mature and old aging animals. The rats were administered intragastrically for 30 days aqueous solutions of the lead acetate, copper sulfate, glyphosate (in herbicide Roundup). For correction on day 21, 6 hours after toxicant administration, the peptide (cysteyl-histidyl-tyrosyl-histidyl-isoleucine) was administered for 10 days. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, CF, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, CF and the content of medium mass molecules (MMM) were determined in the serum of affected and corrected rats.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> As our studies showed, the administration of lead acetate, copper sulfate and glyphosate led to changes in protein metabolism in animals of different ages. These toxicants increased the content of MMM and the activity of aminotransferases in the blood plasma of affected rats. Under the action of lead acetate, copper sulfate and glyphosate and their combination, an increase in the activity of aminotransferases in the serum of animals was observed. The most pronounced increase in the activity of these enzymes was observed in 3-month-old rats. Thus, the activity of the enzyme ALT was higher by 164 % under the affect of copper sulfate, 184 % – lead acetate, 276 % – glyphosate, 428 % – in their combined damage compared to control (intact animals). The activity of the enzyme AST varied in the same way as the activity of ALT. It increased by 2.6; 2.7; 2.1 times in the serum of 3-, 6- and 24-month-old animals with combined lesions (p &lt;0.05), respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Liver function is suppressed by 30 days of toxic effects of lead acetate, copper sulfate and glyphosate (roundup) at a dose of 1/20 LD<sub>50</sub>. Increased serum MMM and aminotransferase (ALT, AST) activity indicated toxic hepatitis syndrome. Administration of the peptide (cysteyl-histidyl-tyrosyl-histidyl-isoleucine) as a corrective factor to rats of different ages with toxic liver damage reduces the enzymatic activity of aminotransferases and the content of medium mass molecules.</p> Ye. B. Dmukhalska M. M. Korda Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 22 29 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12729 DETECTION OF MILNACIPRAN BIOTRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN URINE UNDER TLC-SCREENING <p class="a"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Thin layer chromatography screening is the most accessible type of screening procedure that is used in forensic toxicology. For the analytical diagnosis of drug poisoning by the TLC method, it is important to develop conditions for the detection of both native compounds and products of their biotransformation in the biological samples.</p> <p class="a"><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to develop a method for isolating the antidepressant drug milnacipran from human urine in the presence of its biotransformation products and determine the conditions for their detection by thin layer chromatography, suitable for analytical diagnostics of thymoleptic intoxication.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The study was carried out with human urine samples collected after taking a single therapeutic dose of milnacipran. The urine was subjected to the acid hydrolysis and the antidepressant and its metabolites were extracted from the destructate with chloroform from an alkaline medium at pH 8–9. Concomitant endogenous admixtures were removed by extraction with diethyl ether from an acidic medium at pH 1. For the chromatographic study of the extracts, four mobile phases recommended by the International Association of Forensic Toxicologists for TLC screening of drugs, and Merk chromatographic plates were used. Colour reactions were carried out on pieces of chromatographic plates with a range of chromogenic reagents most common used in chemical-toxicological analysis. Metabolites were identified by electron impact mass spectrometry.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> The parameters of the chromatographic mobility of the main (N-desethylmylnacipran) and minor (the structure could not be established) metabolites of milnacipran were determined, as well as the results of the reactions of their visualization with chromogenic reagents.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Isolation conditions for milnacipran and its biotransformation products from human urine have been proposed. The method of the detection of the native compound and milnacipran metabolites in the extracts from urine by TLC and colour reactions after taking a single therapeutic dose of the drug has been developed. The methods are recommended for use in the practice of forensic and clinical toxicology.</p> S. V. Baiurka S. A. Karpushyna E. Yu. Akhmedov Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 30 34 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12730 CHANGES IN THE LIPID PROFILE OF ANIMALS WITH SIMULATED METABOLIC SYNDROME <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The formation of atherogenic changes in the lipid profile of metabolic syndrome (MS) is due to the action of many risk factors. Atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia is not only a risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis, but also one of the main components of MS.</p> <p><strong>The aim of study</strong> – to evaluate changes in the lipid profile of rats with simulated MS.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The study was performed on 40 white male Wistar rats weighing 200–250 g. The control group included 8 animals. Male rats of the main group (n=32) were fed a diet high in fat (over 60&nbsp;% energy from fat) for 16 weeks, thus modeling their development MS. Animals were removed from the experiment by decapitation. The lipid profile in the serum of rats was evaluated using a biochemical analyzer HTI BioChem SA (USA) and standard test kits.</p> <p><strong>Results and </strong><strong>Discussion.</strong> It was found that against the background of MS, the rats of the main group compared with controls developed hypercholesterolemia, which was characterized by an increase in animal blood levels of total cholesterol (TC) by 18.38&nbsp;%, triglycerides (TG) by 77.35&nbsp;%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by 156.52&nbsp;% with a simultaneous decrease in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) by 36.14&nbsp;%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>s.</strong> In animals with MS, changes in lipid metabolism were characterized by hyper- and dyslipidemia (statistically significantly higher levels of TC, TG, LDL on the background of the destruction of HDL) compared with controls.</p> I. Ya. Dziubanovskyi A. M. Prodan S. R. Pidruchna N. A. Melnyk T. Ya. Yaroshenko Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 35 38 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12731 RESEARCH OF FLAVONOIDS OF SWEET-SCENT MARIGOLD (TAGETES LUCIDA CAV.) <p class="a"><strong>Introduction.</strong> In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studies of the binding function of serum albumin (BFSA) in various pathological conditions. However, changes in BFSA in chronic diseases remain poorly studied. Given the existing evidence of the impact of serum albumin transport disorders on the effectiveness of drug treatment, it is important to study the relationship of BFSA disorders with various pathological processes accompanied by long-term drug treatment. Among such diseases, hypertension (HTN) and various comorbid conditions arouse interest.</p> <p class="a"><strong>The aim of the research</strong> – to evaluate the relationships between changes in BFSA and indicators of liver function in HTN in combination with concomitant non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to propose drug correction of the detected changes.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Research Methods. </strong>Three groups of patients with stage II HTN with a degree of arterial hypertension of 2–3&nbsp;were examined. The first group included 28 people without concomitant diseases, the second group included 48 patients with concomitant NASH, and the third group included 47 people with NASH and type 2 diabetes. Groups 2 and 3, in turn, were divided into two subgroups (A and B). Patients of subgroup A – received basic HTN therapy and, in addition, the Antral drug of 1 tablet 3 times a day for 60 days, of subgroup B – only basic HTN therapy. All patients underwent a standard clinical examination, as well as had their BFSA and liver indicators inspected: the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), thymol turbidity test (TTT) and total serum bilirubin (T Bil) in blood. The comparison group consisted of 25 practically healthy individuals.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Results and discussion. </strong>Increased activity of GGT, ALP, TTT indicators and total serum bilirubin was observed in patients of group 1, and a positive correlation between the average strength of BFSA and total bilirubin was observed. In group 2 there was a decrease of BFSA and an increase of all the studied indicators, in addition, negative correlations of its average strength with AST and ALP were observed. Group 3 showed an even more significant decrease of BFSA and liver function indicators, as well as negative correlations of the average strength of BFSA with ALT and TTT and a strong connection with ALP. In patients of both subgroups treated with Antral, compared with the subgroups without the use of hepatoprotectant, BFSA increased and the studied increased levels of biochemical indicators decreased and the strength of correlations of BFSA with all indicators increased. This may be due to the positive effect of Antral on the functional state of the liver.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The use of Antral in patients with HTN in combination with NASH and NASH and type 2 DM leads to an improvement in the indicator of BFSA and liver function.</p> Yu. R. Dzordzo S. M. Andreychyn Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 39 44 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12732 COMORBID COURSE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND PATHOLOGIES OF THE THYROID GLAND: LABORATORY MARKERS <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Diabetes and its complications are among the top 10 causes of death in the world. Most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have at least one complication. Thyroid dysfunction (TD), after diabetes, is the second most common metabolic dysfunction in the world. In recent years, researchers have paid more attention to the comorbid course of diabetes mellitus and TD. Hypothyroidism (HT) and diffuse non-toxic goiter are common thyroid disorders.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to identify possible laboratory markers of comorbid T2DM, HT and diffuse non-toxic goiter.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>A retrospective study of the medical records of 519 patients with T2DM who were hospitalized in the endocrinology department in 2019 was conducted. Two research groups were formed: group 1 (501 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus) and group 2 (19 patients with comorbid T2DM, HT and diffuse non-toxic goiter). Laboratory data (results of general blood tests, lipid profile, thyroid hormones, biochemical markers) were evaluated and statistical processing was performed using the calculation of median, lower and upper quartiles, Mann-Whitney U-test.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> The study of general blood tests revealed significantly higher ESR (p = 0.03834), BMI (p = 0.0009), glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.0009), AST (p = 0.01379) in the group T2DM + HT + diffuse non-toxic goiter compared with the group T2DM only. Also, patients with comorbid T2DM, HT and diffuse non-toxic goiter had dyslipidemia due to HDL cholesterol (p = 0.0003), residual cholesterol (p = 0.0003) and triglycerides (p = 0.0084) compared with patients with T2DM without TD.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Patients with comorbid T2DM, HT and diffuse non-toxic goiter have significantly higher BMI, glycated hemoglobin, AST, ESR compared to patients with T2DM only. There is also a violation of lipid metabolism, characterized by a significantly decrease HDL cholesterol, increased residual cholesterol and triglycerides.</p> V. A. Musiienko M. I. Marushchak Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 45 52 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12651 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE EQUIVALENT OF THE CORNEA STROMA OBTAINED BY THE DECELULARIZATION METHOD <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>As a result of increasing military, traffic and domestic injuries, the problem of shortage of donor material is particularly relevant. The huge shortage of donor material for keratoplasty forces us to look for additional sources of transplant material, methods of making and using xenogeneic grafts. One such material is the pig's cornea, which is similar in structure and biomechanical parameters to the human cornea.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to research the chemical composition of the equivalent of the corneal stroma, removed from the eyes of pigs and obtained by the method of decelularization in order to further its use as a material for keratoplasty.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The corneal membrane obtained from the removed eyes of pigs is placed in a medium for tissue culture, followed by its decellularization. Treated with 0.5 % solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate with constant shaking; treated with ultrasound (three times), incubate in the presence of an enzyme solution of papain; washed with buffer solution (pH 6.5), centrifuged. Place in a solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone for storage. Photocolorimetric and atomic absorption methods of analysis were used to determine the elemental composition of biological samples.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>The chemical composition of the equivalent of the corneal stroma obtained by the method of decelularization was studied. According to the results of atomic absorption analysis in the decellularized cornea of pig, 14 macro- and microelements were identified. Among macroelements, the largest amount is sodium&nbsp;– 8323 mg/kg of air-dry sample, potassium – 1163 mg/kg, magnesium – 618 mg/kg and calcium – 224 mg/kg. The mass fraction of microelements in the study object is in the following sequence: iron – 755 mg/kg, cobalt – 296 mg/kg, nickel – 103 mg/kg, titanium – 13.2 mg/kg, zinc – 7 .9 mg/kg, manganese – 4.5 mg/kg, silicon – 6.2 mg/kg, copper&nbsp;– 5.7 mg/kg, lanthanum – 0.4 mg/kg. The smallest amount is argentum – 0.03 mg/kg.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Promising for further research is a comprehensive study and improvement of the method used to deceleralize the cornea of animals in order to obtain bioengineered samples for their subsequent keratoplasty, which solves the problem of transplantation – obtaining donor material.</p> M. B. Danyliuk I. M. Klishch I. P. Kuzmak A. P. Krasnopyorova Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 53 58 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12733 FERTILITY INDICATORS AND PLASMA LEPTIN LEVELS IN RATS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF HIGH-CALORIES DIETS <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity to male fertility are being actively studied by the scientific community. Leptin is a peptide hormone that is mainly synthesized in adipose tissue and maintains energy homeostasis. In addition, it is actively involved in the regulation of reproductive function through modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Probably, leptin can be considered as a biomarker that combines metabolic status with the reproductive system of the body.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to evaluate the effect of high-calorie diets on male fertility and plasma leptin levels.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The study was performed on 30 white nonlinear male rats weighing 250–300 g, which were divided into three groups, 10 males each: the control group of rats (CG) consumed standard food; animals of the experimental groups received a high-fat diet (HFD) and a high-fat/high-sugar diet (HFHS), respectively. The animals were kept on these diets for seven weeks. After euthanasia, morphometric measurements were performed, Lee index, testicular coefficient and visceral fat coefficient were calculated. Blood for the study was taken from the rat tail vessels in eppendorf with heparin. The material was centrifuged at 800 g for 5 min, then plasma was collected for further studies. Sperm suspension was prepared from the cauda epididymis. The total number of sperm cells and motility were calculated. Sperm vitality were performed by staining of spermatozoa with propidium iodide, and fluorescence was assessed using an Olympus IX73 microscope. The concentration of leptin in blood plasma was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>Keeping rats on HFD and HFHS by 7 weeks did not significantly affect body weight gain. The Lee index did not differ significantly between the study groups (p=0.59). However, the coefficient of visceral fat in the HFHS group was 40 % higher compared to CG (p=0.04). We did not find a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of sperm count (p=0.72), motility (p=0.63) and viability (p=0.87). A diet with high sugar and fat resulted in a 14 % increase in leptin plasma concentrations in rats versus baseline (p=0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Short-term high-fat/high-sugar diet causes metabolic changes, as evidenced by a significant increase in the proportion of adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels.</p> N. M. Kozopas H. V. Maksymyuk Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 59 63 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12734 CHANGES IN PROTEIN METABOLISM IN RATS UNDER CONSUMPTION OF DRINKING WATER WITH NITRATES AND HARDNESS SALTS <p class="a"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Human body receives many different chemicals with drinking water. But there are those that in excessive quantities can adversely affect the body of consumers. Such substances include nitrates or salts of nitric acid, which are extremely common in the environment. In addition to nitrates, the most preferred chemical compounds, which are determined in groundwater in quantities exceeding the standards, are hardness salts.</p> <p class="a"><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to learn the effect of drinking water with normative and above-standard content of nitrates and hardness salts in combination at the level of 1, 3, 5 and 10 MPC on protein metabolism in experimental animals in the conditions of subacute experiment.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The experiment was performed on 30 white female rats, divided into 5 groups, which differed in drinking water quality. The animals of the control group used water from the city water supply, group&nbsp;1&nbsp;– water containing calcium and magnesium in combination with nitrates in the amount of 1 MPC, group 2 – 3 MPC, group 3 – 5 MPC, group 4 – 10 MPC. Serum protein, creatinine, urea, and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were determined in serum to assess protein metabolism in experimental animals.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> As a result of 30 days of drinking water with normative and excessive content of nitrates and hardness salts revealed changes in the level of certain biochemical parameters of protein metabolism, namely an increase in total protein, creatinine and transaminases and urea. The changes were most pronounced in animals of group 4 (p &lt;0.05).</p> <p class="a"><strong>Conclusion. </strong>Given the long-term consumption of such drinking water, it can be expected that the established changes can lead to the development of pathological processes and the emergence of diseases in animals and humans.</p> O. V. Lototska M. V. Danchyshyn Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 64 68 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12739 MECHANISMS OF ADRENAL MYOCARDIAL DAMAGE DEVELOPMENT IN RATS WITH DIFFERENT MOTOR ACTIVITY <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> One of the reasons for the development of cardiovascular pathology is stress, which releases excessive amounts of catecholamines, which cause the development of pathology.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to evaluate the development of oxidative stress in the heart homogenate of male rats with different motor activity in adrenaline myocardial damage (AMD).</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The experiments were performed on purebred rats weighing 180–220 grams. Selection of animals for motor activity was carried out by the method of "open field". Experiment on animals was performed in control, 1 and 24 hours after injection of adrenaline, which determined diene conjugates (DC), TBA-active products (TBA-ap), oxidatively modified proteins (OMP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (Cat). Conducted morphological examination of the myocardium in Heidenhain-stained preparations.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> In the control of highly active males, compared with low-activity, dominated by pro­ducts of lipid peroxidation (DC, TBA-ap) and OMP, as well as higher superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. At the beginning of the development of AMD in all animals increased the content of DC, TBA-ap, OMP, and they remained higher in highly active rats. The activity of antioxidants increased. Moreover, the difference in SOD between the two groups of animals was not detected, and Cat was higher in low-activity rats. The number of necrosis was higher in animals with high motor activity. In 24 hours of AMD further increase of DC, TBA-ap, OMP, in comparison with control and the previous term of research is noted. There was also a decrease in antioxidant activity, which did not differ from those of control animals, but only in males with low motor activity. In animals with low motor activity, the activity of antioxidants exceeded the control value, and it was more than an hour after the injection of adrenaline. Changes in the indexes indicating the development of damage were significantly greater in animals with high motor activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The development of adrenaline damage to the heart depends on the motor activity of the animal. A more pronounced difference was observed in the experiment. Greater antioxidant activity prevents significant myocardial damage.</p> O. V. Denefil T. Ya. Yaroshenko M. I. Medynskyi U. V. Kotyuk Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 69 74 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12740 DYNAMICS OF CYTOLYTIC SYNDROME INDICES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SKELETAL TRAUMA IN COMBINATION WITH ACUTE BLOOD LOSS, SKIN DAMAGE AND PRP-THERAPY EFFECTIVENESS <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Road injuries are among the topical issues of modern urban society. Road accidents often cause soft tissue damage, including skin damage, in addition to skeletal traumas. Improper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries often leads to an increase in mortality. One of the promising methods of regeneration of the damaged body tissues is platelet-based biological grafts (Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapy), but in the case of multiple trauma, this method of correction is insufficiently studied.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to determine the dynamics of cytolytic syndrome indices under the influence of multiple trauma and evaluate the PRP-therapy effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>Research </strong><strong>Methods. </strong>The experiments were performed on 186 nonlinear white male rats weighing 180–200 g. In the first experimental group, the animals were simulated mechanical damage of skin (on the back of the animal a skin flap of 2×2 cm was cut). In the second experimental group, skeletal trauma complicated with acute blood loss was simulated. In the third experimental group, these lesions were combined. In the fourth experimental group, animals with multiple trauma were intradermally injected with 0.1 ml of platelet-rich plasma in wound edges. After 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of trauma infliction, the animals were removed from the experiment. The serum values of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities (ALT, AST) were measured. The control groups consisted of intact animals.</p> <p><strong>Results and </strong><strong>Discussion.</strong> The studies have shown that mechanical trauma of skin causes statistically significant increase in serum values of ALT and AST activities up to 21st day compared to the control. By the 28th day, the activity of cytolysis markers decreased. Serum AST reached the control level, while ALT activity continued to be elevated. The regularity of ALT and AST dynamics under conditions of skeletal trauma complicated with acute blood loss, but with greater amplitude, was similar. By the 28th day, both indicators did not reach the control level. The multiple trauma model was accompanied by an even greater intensification of cytolysis processes at all experimental periods. Due to use of PRP-therapy in the group with multiple trauma compared to injured animals without correction from the 14th day of the experiment, there was a decrease in serum ALT and AST activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Mechanical damage of skin considerably exacerbates the cytolytic syndrome caused by skeletal trauma complicated by acute blood loss. Intradermal administration of allogeneic platelet-rich plasma under these conditions leads to decrease in the intensity of cytolysis processes, starting from the 14th day of the experiment.</p> Z. V. Smahlii S. O. Halnykina Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 75 81 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12741 MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL CHANGES OF RATS’ OVARY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD ACETATE IN THE EXPERIMENT <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Lead is a natural toxic metal found in the earth's crust. As a toxicant it is in the focus of attention not only of ecologists, toxicologists and hygienists, but also morphologists and clinicians. This is due to the fact that poisoning by lead compounds is accompanied by dysfunction of the nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.</p> <p><strong>The aim</strong> <strong>of the study</strong> – to learn the effect of low, medium and high doses of lead acetate on biochemical parameters and morphological status of rat ovaries in the experiment.</p> <p><strong>Materials and </strong><strong>Methods.</strong> The study was performed on 40 nonlinear female rats, divided into 4 experimental groups. Rats were given 30 days to drink a solution of lead acetate at a rate of 0.05 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of animal weight. Biochemical, histological and statistic metods were used in the work.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>It was found that in group III of animals, compared with II, DC were 2.8 times higher, TBA-active products were observed more than 2.1 times. In group IV of animals in comparison with group II, DCs were 4.3 times higher, TB-active products were detected 2.7 times more. In group IV of animals in comparison with group III of animals, DCs were higher by 55.8 %, TB-active products were found by 24.8 %. It was found that in group III animals, compared with II, SOD was lower by 34.7 %, and catalase activity was higher by 32.3 %. In group IV animals, compared with group II, SOD was lower by 63 %, catalase activity – by 86.6 %. In group IV animals, compared with group III, SOD was lower by 43.3 % and catalase activity – by 89.9 %. As the dose of lead acetate increases, morphological changes in both cortex and medulla of rat ovaries deepen, which leads to changes in the thickness of ovarian surface structures and a decrease in the number of follicles, indicating impaired growth and maturation.</p> <p><strong>Conclussions.</strong> Under the influence of small doses of lead acetate changes have adaptive character, and under the large doses – degenerative.</p> Ya. O. Bilyk S. V. Chorniy O. V. Denefil L. Ya. Fedoniuk N. Yu. Terletska Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 82 88 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12742 DETERMINATION OF QUANTITATIVE CONTENT OF THE AMOUNT OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN TINCTURES FROM RAW MATERIALS OF PLANTS OF THE FAMILIES POLYGONACEAE, ROSACEAE, ASTERACEAE <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Organic acids play an important role in the body of plants and humans.</p> <p><strong>The</strong> <strong>aim of the study </strong>– to determine the quantitative content of the amount of organic acids in a series of tinctures of rhizomes with roots of Rumex confertus, Sanguisorba officinalis, roots of Rosa majalis, Rosa canina, Arctium lappa, Arctium minus, Arctium tomentosum and herbs of Bidens tripartita.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> Objects of study are tinctures from different series of rhizomes with roots of Rumex confertus, Sanguisorba officinalis, roots of Rosa majalis, Rosa canina, Arctium lappa, Arctium minus, Arctium tomentosum and herbs of Bidens tripartita, which were obtained by maceration at room temperature and ratio plant raw materials/finished products 1:5, extractant 50 % ethanol. Quantitative content of the amount of organic acids was determined by titrimetric method (method of monograph SPhU 2.0 "Rose hips", in terms of malic acid).</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> The quantitative content of the amount of organic acids was determined in some series of tinctures from plant raw materials of some plants of the families Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae by the alkalimetric method which is given in the monograph of SPhU 2.0 "Rose hips". It was determined the limits of them which was respectively not less than 3.5 mg/ml for the tincture of rhizomes with roots of Rumex confertus, 2,5 mg/ml for the tincture of rhizomes with roots of Sanguisorba officinalis, on 2.1 mg/ml for the tincture of roots of Rosa majalis and Rosa canina, 1.5 mg/ml for the tincture of the roots of Arctium lappa, 2.0 mg/ml for the tincture of the roots of Arctium minus, 1.8 mg/ml for the tincture of the roots of Arctium tomentosum, 1,0 mg/ml for tincture of herbs of Bidens tripartita.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The quantitative content of the amount of organic acids was determined by alkalimetric method in series of tinctures of rhizomes with roots of Rumex confertus, Sanguisorba officinalis, roots of Rosa majalis, Rosa canina, Arctium lappa, Arctium minus, Arctium tomentosum and herbs of Bidens tripartita. The obtained data will be used in further studies of tinctures from these types of plant raw materials.</p> T. V. Oproshanska O. P. Khvorost Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 89 94 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12544 RESEARCH OF FLAVONOIDS OF SWEET-SCENT MARIGOLD (TAGETES LUCIDA CAV.) <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>A promising source of new drugs are species of the genus Tagetes, which are cultivated in Ukraine as a technical and ornamental plant. Medicinal properties of marigold are used in traditional medicine as an immunosuppressant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, choleretic and sedative agent. Sweet-scent marigold (Tagetes lucida Cav.) is the little-studied species of the genus Tagetes, which was introduced into culture of Ukraine by scientists from the Department of Flowering and Ornamental Plants of M. M. Hryshko National Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kyiv).</p> <p><strong>The </strong><strong>aim of the study </strong>– to research and rcompare the content of flavonoids in raw materials (flowers, leaves, roots, seeds, stems) of sweet-scent marigolds.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> Flavonoids were detected in ethanol-aqueous extracts by identification reactions and TLC method. The quantitative content of the sum of flavonoids was determined on UV-1800 Shimadzu spectrophotometer (Japan) at a wavelength of 415 nm in terms of rutin. HPLC on Agilent 1200 chromatograph (Agilent Technologies, USA) detected and quantified individual flavonoid compounds.</p> <p><strong>Results and </strong><strong>Discussion. </strong>Positive results of identification reactions indicated the presence of flavonoids in the raw material of sweet-scent marigold. The presence of quercetin and kaempferol in flowers, leaves, roots, seeds and stems was established by TLC. Rutin is found in all studied raw materials, except for stems. The HPLC method revealed 6 individual flavonoids in marigold’s flowers and seeds, 5 – in leaves, 4 – in roots and stems. Most quercetin was detected in the studied objects. In seeds, leaves and flowers, its content was the highest and was 6322.13&nbsp;μg/g, 4006.79 μg/g and 3734.08 μg/g, respectively. All types of raw material of marigold also contained kaempferol, which was the biggest part in flowers – 303.29 mcg/g. The spectrophotometric method determined that the highest content of the amount of flavonoids was contained in the seeds of sweet-scent marigold and was (7.89±0.18) %, the least of them in the stems – (1.86±0.08) %.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Identification reactions revealed the presence of flavonoids in marigold’s flowers, leaves, roots, seeds and stems. TLC revealed quercetin, kaempferol, rutin (except stems), isoquercitrin (except roots), apigenin (flowers only). By HPLC, 6 individual flavonoids were found in marigold’s flowers and seeds, 5 – in leaves, and 4&nbsp;– in roots and stems. Most quercetin was detected in the studied objects. The quantitative content of the sum of flavonoids in the raw material of sweet-scent marigold was determined by spectrophotometric method. Their highest content in seeds was (7.89±0.18) %, slightly lower, which was (6.58±0.12) %, in the leaves.</p> S. M. Marchyshyn L. V. Kostyshyn T. V. Valko V. M. Kishchuk E. A. Parashchuk Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 95 102 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12743 DEVELOPMENT OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ATORVASTATIN IN TABLETS <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Atorvastatin is widely represented in the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine hypolipidemic agent for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular system diseases. Many procedures are known for assay of atorvastatin, however, many of them have limitations due to the using of harmful reagents, time consuming, heating, extraction etc.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to develop simple, cost-effective, UV-spectrophotometric method for the estimation of atorvastatin in tablet dosage form that are available on the Ukrainian market according to the principles of "green" chemistry.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The studies were carried out on Shimadzu UV-1800 spectrophotometer (Japan), electronic laboratory balance RAD WAG AS 200/C, ultrasonic bath Sonorex Digitec DT100H, measuring glassware class A. Atorvastatin calcium salt trihydrate CRS (Sigma-Aldrich ≥98 %, HPLC), methanol&nbsp;R (Honeywell Riedel-de Haen™, 99.9 %), Atorvastatin-Teva tablets, 10 mg No.10 (Teva, Israel), batch No.19939.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> For the development of determination procedure of atorvastatin by direct UV spectrophotometry, an intensely expressed absorbance maximum of the latter at 247 nm was selected. Correctness of the analytical procedure was confirmed by calculating its complete uncertainty (2.56 %). The linear dependence in the range of 8–40 mg/ml was obtained. The specificity of the method is proved by the absence of absorbance at the analytical wavelength in solutions of placebo tablets. The precision of the experimental data was characterized by a low standard deviation in the studied concentration range of API and the systematic error was 0.02 %. In robustness studies it was found the stability of solution absorbance over time for 100 minutes. According to the analytical eco-scale, the method belongs to the “Excellent green analysis”.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> A method for UV spectrophotometric determination of atorvastatin in tablets (λ<sub>max</sub> = 247&nbsp;nm) was developed. The complete uncertainty of the developed method was calculated. According to such validation parameters as linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness, the method is correct.</p> N. S. Shulyak S. A. Protsyk T. V. Kucher L. S. Kryskiw Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 103 110 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12745 ANTHOCYANINS AND ANTHOCYANIDINS AS COMPONENTS OF FUNCTIONAL NUTRITION: BIOCHEMISTRY AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins are two types of red-blue plant flavonoids, mostly found in flowers and fruits of higher plants. The main difference between anthocyanin and anthocyanidin is that anthocyanin is a water-soluble vacuolar pigment whereas anthocyanidin is sugar-free counterpart of anthocyanin. They are based on the flavylium cation, an oxonium ion, with various groups substituted for its hydrogen atoms. Anthocyanins are formed by adding sugars to various side groups of the flavylium ion. The pigments are in glycosylated forms. Cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, and pelargonidin are six common anthocyanidins. Besides the use of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural dyes, these colored pigments are potential pharmaceutical ingredients that give various beneficial health effects. Scientific studies, such as cell culture studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, show that anthocyanidins and anthocyanins have antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various diseases.</p> <p>This review summarizes the latest literature on the biological benefits of dietary anthocyanins, including antitumor activity, anti-inflammatory activity, neuroprotective activity, cardiovascular disease prevention, obesity, and antidiabetic activity, with a particular focus on molecular mechanisms of action. This review will help you better understand these dietary phytochemicals and use them for human health. This paper uses general scientific research methods, including expert-analytical review of scientific sources, analysis and synthesis of literature data.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to summarize basic knowledge of biochemistry, regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants, molecular mechanisms of action, highlight some aspects of anthocyanin antioxidant activity and their bioavailability and discuss recent experimental data related to beneficial effects on human health.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The analysis of literature sources substantiates the relevance of the study of molecular mechanisms of action of anthocyanins, the importance of these compounds as natural dyes, stress markers for plants and prevention of many chronic human diseases and their use to prevent a number of diseases.</p> I. P. Kuzmak Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 111 124 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12746 TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The study analyzes the published literature data on key properties of one of the most important nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanoparticles have unique mechanical, electrical and thermal properties and are widely used in scientific research, industry and medicine. Nanotechnology today is the most promising direction in the development of world science. Nanomaterials have caused a step forward in many industries and are used in our overall life. Carbon nanotubes are one of the priority types of nanomaterials. They are multifunctional materials that are actively studied due to their unique physical and chemical properties. They exist in various forms and can be chemically modified by functional groups of biomolecules. CNT have unique mechanical, electrical and thermal properties and are widely used in various industries. Nanotubes are a promising nanomaterial for medical use due to their really high biocompatibility with blood, bones, cartilages and soft tissues. They can be used to ­create artificial heart valves, for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as for the transport of proteins, antigens, genes, vaccines and medicinal substances into a cell. This material has a wide range of applications for biological and medical use. Among them there are visualization of molecular, cellular and tissue structures; construction of biosensors and electrodes; targeted delivery of various substances; and the use in radiation and photothermal therapies. Due to everyday increase of nanomaterial use, less attention is paid to the possible negative effects of nanoparticles on environment and on people’s health as a whole. Small size, specific structure, large surface area, and chemical composition alert of possible toxic effects on the human body. It was demonstrated that depending on the route of administration and the dose, body carbon nanotubes can be harmful to human body. Thus it is necessary to study the toxicological properties of carbon nanotubes their intake to the body.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to analyze modern literature sources on the peculiarities of the toxicological effects of carbon nanotubes</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The current small amount of research in this area suggests that nanomaterials can be toxic. Therefore, the prospects for widespread use necessitate the continuation of research on the specifics of their impact on human health.</p> N. Ja. Letniak Copyright (c) 2022 Medical and Clinical Chemistry 2022-02-23 2022-02-23 4 125 131 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2021.i4.12747