Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC <p><em><span lang="EN-US">Applied research journal, dedicated to the questions of molecular mechanisms of pathology development, biochemistry in diagnostics and treatment, specifically, cardio-vascular diseases, biochemical hepatology and nephrology, biochemistry of endocrinology, pathological chemistry of inherited diseases and emergency conditions, biochemistry in surgical field, neurochemistry and pathological chemistry of the brain, immunochemistry, xenobiochemistry, problems and experience in teaching biological and medical chemistry. The journal is included in the list of professional journals, where results of Ph.D. program research in biological, pharmaceutical and medical sciences can be published.&nbsp;</span></em><br><em><strong><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">ISSN&nbsp;</span>2414-9934<span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;(Online), ISSN 2410-681X (Print)</span></span></strong></em><br><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">The Journal is included in "<a href="https://mon.gov.ua/ua/nauka/nauka/atestaciya-kadriv-vishoyi-kvalifikaciyi/naukovi-fahovi-vidannya">The List of Scientific Professional Journals approved by Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine"</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Medicine, and </strong></span></span></em><strong><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">Biology,</span></span></em><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;and&nbsp;</span></span></em><em><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span></span></em>Рharmacology </strong><em style="font-family: 'Noto Sans', Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;"><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-GB"><strong>(category B, specialties 091, 221,222, 226, </strong>according to the Order of Ministry of Education and Science 11.07.2019 № 975)&nbsp;</span></span></em></p> en-US rector@tdmu.edu.ua (M.Korda) Yaroshenko@tdmu.edu.ua (T. Yaroshenko) Wed, 04 Aug 2021 17:26:18 +0300 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 POTENTIAL USE OF SULFORAPHANE AS A NEUROPROTECTOR https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12048 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Under normal conditions, oxidative stress and proinflammatory processes are tightly controlled. However, during neuroinflammation and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), homeostasis is disrup­ted, which may lead to development of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Inflammatory processes may result in neurodegenerative disorders. Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate compound which has potential for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Its therapeutic potential is based on the ability to activate transcription of genes, that regulate protective cellular mechanisms. The importance of stu­dying sulforaphane as a neuroprotector is based on the fact, that dementias are the seventh leading cause of death glo­bally and actively progress due to aging of human population. In this review, the anti-inflammatory effects of sulforaphane in the brain and its use as a potential neuroprotector in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to review available literature sources on the potential use of sulforaphane to prevent or mitigate neuroinflammation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Economic and technological development of mankind and the improvement of the general qua­lity of life leads to prolongation of human life. But, achievements of longevity give new challenges to humanity. In young age and early adulthood, the organisms can relatively easily maintain homeostasis, then in old age intensification of oxidative stress and inflammatory processes can lead to the development of dementias and mental disorders. What should we do now to save clear mind in old age? In this review, sulforaphane is considered to be a potential neuroprotector. Biologically active supplements and drugs containing sulforaphane can weaken up inflammatory processes in the brain and in the body in general, and therefore they can be used for prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.</p> S. A. Tsiumpala, K. M. Starchevska, V. I. Lushchak Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12048 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 STUDY OF THE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF THE PHYTOCOMPOSITION ON THE DEXAMETHASONE-INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12233 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) has recently become an epidemic in the population. There are approximately 463 million patients in the world, and according to experts from the International Diabetes Federation, it is expected to increase to 700 million people by 2045, of which more than 90 % will fall on DM2. Despite the significant progress made in studying the pathogenesis of DM, the presence of a wide range of antidiabetic drugs, diabetes remains an acute medical and social problem.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to investigate the specific activity of the phytocomposition, which contains dry extracts of white mulberry leaves (Morus alba&nbsp;L.), common beans shells (Phaseolus vulgaris&nbsp;L.), bilberry sprouts (Vaccinium myrtillus&nbsp;L.) in the experimental model of insulin resistance caused by dexamethasone injections.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The experiments were performed on male rats aged three months and weight (200±20)&nbsp;g. Experimental animals were divided into the following groups: negative and positive control, two reference groups, which received Arfazetin and metformin respectively, and experimental group, which received phytocomposition. Insulin resistance was modeled by intramuscular administration of glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone (0.125 mg/kg daily for 13 days in the morning). The state of glucose homeostasis was assessed by changes in basal glycemia and under oral glucose tolerance test, short insulin and adrenalin test. Functional glycemic coefficients were also calculated. Statistical processing was performed using computer programs IBM SPSS Statistics v.10.1 and <br>MS&nbsp;Excel 2010.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>Basal glycemia after modeling insulin resistance in the experimental group, which received the phytocomposition, was significantly lower by 19.0 % from the positive control group and did not differ from the activity of metformin. During the oral glucose tolerance test, the phytocomposition significantly inhibited the growth of glycemia in all studied periods relative to the indicators of the positive control group. Functional glycemic coefficients, which were obtained based on test data, did not exceed the norm. Insulin sensitivity under the influence of phytomedicine increased by 16.2 % above the positive control group, indicating inhibition of insulin resistance development under its influence. The studied phytocomposition inhibited the development of adrenaline glycemia by 42.9, 70.2 % after 30 and 90 min, respectively, relative to the positive control group, which corresponds to the indicators of the negative control group and reference group, which received Arfazetin, but this decrease is not enough to exceed the effect of metformin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The obtained results indicate that the studied phytocomposition inhibits the development of insulin resistance and carbohydrate tolerance in the conditions of insulin resistance caused by the introduction of dexamethasone.</p> A. I. Dub, I. M. Klishch, L. V. Vronska, I. P. Stechyshyn Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12233 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 IMMUNE STATUS AND DYNAMICS OF INDICATORS OF THE SYNDROME OF ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION IN EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE GENERALIZED PERITONITIS AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF STREPTOSOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12175 <p class="a"><strong>Introduction.</strong> The study of pathogenetic features of acute generalized peritonitis against the background of hyperglycemia is an actual issue due to the severity of acute peritonitis, its atypical clinical picture and high mortality in this combined pathology.</p> <p class="a"><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to investigate the immune status and assess the dynamics of endogenous intoxication syndrome in rats with experimental acute generalized peritonitis against the background of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The experimental study was performed on 48 adult white male rats. The main group of animals was divided into three subgroups, in which studied the immune response (Ig G, Ig M, Ig A; CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+) and indicators of the endogenous intoxication syndrome (MMM<sub>254</sub> and MMM<sub>280</sub>, EII). Diabetes mellitus was simulated by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). On day 14 of diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with 0.5 ml of 10 % filtered faecal suspension into the abdominal cavity and initiated acute generalized peritonitis. In the control group, rats were injected subcutaneously with 0.9 % NaCl.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> The tendency to decrease the levels of Ig G and Ig A during all terms of development of the combined pathology is revealed. Excessive accumulation of Ig M and Ig A in the blood on the first day and an increase of level of Ig M on the third day of peritonitis development were observed compared with the control group. Deficiency of T-cell immunity has been established, which is manifested by a decrease in the levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+ in all subgroups. During the experiment, the progressive increase in endogenous intoxication was accompanied by an increase in level of MMM<sub>254</sub> and MMM<sub>280</sub> and increase of erythrocyte intoxication index.</p> <p class="a"><strong>Conclusions. </strong>In animals with acute generalized peritonitis against the background of streptozotocin-induced diabetes processes of endogenous intoxication progress, which is manifested by an increase of MMM<sub>254</sub> and MMM<sub>280</sub> in the blood and the value of EII in the dynamics of the combined pathology. Low rates of cellular immune response against the background of high values of peptides with average molecular weight confirm the severity of acute peritonitis under conditions of hyperglycemia.</p> B. M. Verveha Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12175 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 THE STATE OF LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION IN EXPERIMENTAL NEOPLASTIC INTOXICATION https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12234 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The question of studying the imbalance between the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection is relevant. This imbalance causes metabolic disorders, the formation of peroxides, ketones, aldehydes.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to investigate the degree of activation of lipid peroxidation and the state of antioxidant protection in neoplastic intoxication syndrome. An important issue is the study of the imbalance between the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection. This imbalance causes metabolic disorders, the formation of peroxi­des, ketones, aldehydes and it is the basis of the pathogeneses of endogenous intoxication. We investigated the degree of activation of lipid peroxidation and the state of antioxidant protection in the syndrome of neoplastic intoxication.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> Pharmacological, morphological, methods of mathematical statistics. Experimental pharmacological studies were performed on white rats weighing 170–180 g. The studies were performed in the Central Research Laboratory of I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine (certificate No. 023/13 of May 05, 2020) in accordance with the methodological recommendations of the State Expert Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. We studied the following blood biochemical parameters: the level of diene and triene conjugates, medium molecular weight peptides (at wavelengths of 254 and 280 nm), active pro­ducts of thiobarbituric acid, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. Rats included in the study were divided into 2 groups: 1 – control group and 2 – positive pathology; the study lasted 30 days. Modeling of pathological processes and withdrawal of animals from the experiment was carried out in compliance with the requirements of bioethics, rules of good laboratory practice and ethical standards of the “European Convention for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental or other scientific purposes”.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> The study showed an increase in biochemical parameters of diene and triene conjugates, active products of thiobarbituric acid, which indicates the activation of the peroxidation process. When evaluating the indicators of superoxide dismutase, it was found that its level was fluctuating and by the end of the experiment decreased by 16.5 %. The level of catalase increased during the experiment. When studying the indicators of MMM<sub>254</sub> and MMM<sub>280</sub>, their growth was revealed, which indicates an increase in the manifestations of endo­genous intoxication.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> With the syndrome of neoplastic intoxication in the blood there is a gradual excessive formation of products of free radical oxidation in combination with compensatory activation of enzyme units of the antioxidant system.</p> P. Ya. Bodnar, I. M. Klishch, Ya. Ya. Bodnar, T. V. Bodnar, Yu. V. Soroka Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12234 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 PECULIARITIES OF MICROELEMENT COMPOSITION OF TEMPORAL BONE AND LOWER JAW IN THE CONDITIONS OF DIABETIC ARTHROPATHY OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12235 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Joint damage in patients with diabetes is a fairly common complication. Peculiarities of the microelement composition of the temporal bone and mandible and structural changes of the temporomandibular joint in diabetes have been insufficiently studied.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to learn the features of the microelement composition of the temporal bone and mandible in diabetic arthropathy of the temporomandibular joint.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> Atomic absorption spectral analysis examined the content of trace elements (iron, cuprum, zinc, magnesium, manganese, lead) in the temporal bone of the mandible of 45 laboratory mature white male rats, which were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 consisted of 15 intact practically healthy animals, group 2 – 15 rats with monthly diabetic arthropathy of the temporomandibular joint, group 3 – 15 animals with two-month specified pathology. Histological micropreparations were also made from the temporal bone and mandible.&nbsp; Diabetes mellitus was simulated by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin by Sigma at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Quantitative indicators were processed statistically.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> It was established that in diabetic arthropathy of the temporomandibular joint the content of iron, cuprum, zinc, magnesium, manganese, lead in the bone tissue of the temporal bone and mandible decreases disproportionately and unevenly. It was found that the iron content in the temporal bone in monthly diabetic arthropathy decreased by 3.4 %, and in the lower jaw – by 4.8&nbsp; %, in two-month arthropathy, the studied indicators changed by 4.8 % and 13.7&nbsp; %, respectively (p&lt;0.001). The cuprum content in temporal diabetic arthropathy of the temporomandibular joint in the temporal bone decreased by 3.4 %, in the lower jaw – by 3.8 %, with a two-month course of simulated pathology – by 3.8 % and 11.9 %, respectively (p&lt;0.001). The content of zinc, magnesium, manganese, lead in the temporal bone and mandible in the studied experimental conditions decreased similarly. Changes in the content of the studied microelements depend on the duration of diabetic arthropathy and dominate in the lower jaw.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Diabetic arthropathy of the temporomandibular joint leads to an uneven, disproportionate decrease in the content of microelements in the temporal bone and lower jaw. The most pronounced imbalance between the content of the studied microelements was found in two-month diabetic arthropathy of the temporomandibular joint and in the lower jaw.</p> M. S. Hnatjuk, L. V. Rubas, L. V. Tatarchuk, O. B. Jasinovsky Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12235 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 CEREBROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF A NEW DERIVATIVE OF 4-AMINOBUTANIC ACID IN EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS OF CLOSED CRANIOCEREBRAL INJURY https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12236 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Cerebroprotectors and nootropics are widely used for cognitive disorders treatment in the complex therapy of craniocerebral injury (ССI).</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> − to investigate the cerebroprotective activity of the compound KGM-5 – a new derivative of 4-aminobutanoic acid.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> Closed CCI was reproduced in rats weighing 200–220 g under light ether anesthesia by free 0.1 kg weight falling along a vertical channel with an impact energy of 0.589 J per animal's head. 35 white non-linear male rats were used. Group 1 – intact control, group 2 – animals with CCCI (CP), groups 3, 4 and 5 of animals with CCCI, which were treated, respectively, with compound KGM-5 (30 mg/kg intragastrically (i/g), with comparison drugs hopantenic acid (150 mg/kg i/g) and piracetam (300 mg/kg i/g) for 3 days before and 5 days after CCCI. On days 1, 2, 3 after CCCI, the degree of neurological deficit (in points) according to the McGraw scale, on day 4 – the functional state of the CNS of animals in the open field test, on day 5 – cognitive functions in the extrapolation release test were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> Under the agents influence а neurological deficit decrease compared with CP group on the first and second days was established. In the "open field" test, motor and exploratory activity and the total amount of activities under the agents action were significantly higher. In the extrapolation release test KGM-5 improve rats’ cognitive functions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. On the CCCI model in rats cerebroprotective activity of compound KGM-5 was established by its ability to reduce the severity of neurological deficit during the first two days of pathology, prevent the locomotor activity decrease and improve cognitive functions of animals.</p> N. Yu. Palagina Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12236 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 IMPACT OF ACUTE HYPOXIC HYPOXIA ON THE OXIDATIVE AND NON-OXIDATIVE PHASES OF L-ARGININE METABOLISM IN MYOCARDIUM AND AORTA OF RATS IN AGE ASPECT https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12237 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Nitric oxide is a unique factor in the regulation of vascular tone, an important component of blood and oxygen supply in humans and animals. With age, NO levels gradually decrease in hypoxia, including the so-called age-dependent diseases, primarily of the cardiovascular system.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to investigate the level of stable NO metabolites, the activity of enzymes of oxidative (NO-synthase), non-oxidative (arginase) phases of L-arginine metabolism, urea content under the action of acute hypoxic hypoxia in rats of different age.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>The experiments were performed using outbred white rats – males of two age groups: 6–8 months (young adults) and 24–26 months (old adults). Experimental animals were exposed to acute hypoxic hypoxia. Euthanasia of control and experimental rats was conducted 24 h after completion of the "launch", then blood was taken, and the heart and aorta were removed. Stable metabolites (nitrites and nitrates of nitric oxide), endothelial and inducible NO-synthase activity, urea and L-arginine content were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>Under hypoxia, the content of stable metabolites of nitric oxide in the myocardium of the young adult rats increased significantly compared to control, in the old adult rats – only slight increase of the nitrate level was observed (by 20 %). In older experimental animals, in contrast to young adults, the activity of eNOS in the myocardium was lower (17 %); on the other hand, the activity of inducible NO synthase exceeded its level in controls almost twice (107 %). In the blood plasma under the influence of hypoxia, the content of nitrates increased in the rats of both age groups, but to a greater extent in the old adult rats (by 68 %). In the blood plasma of old adult rats at physiological rest, the content of urea exceeded that of young adult rats (40 %). The effect of hypoxia in young adult rats caused an increase in the content of urea in the blood plasma by 69 %, though in the plasma of the old adult rats this parameter did not change and was equal to its content in young adults. The content of L-arginine was the same in the blood plasma of rats of both age groups at physiological rest and remained at the same level after hypoxia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Maintaining a relatively stable level of nitrites and nitrates in the myocardium of old experimental rats, in contrast to young adults, is solely due to the increased activity of inducible NO synthase. The reason for this phenomenon may be the inhibition of eNO-synthase, which is caused by inducible NO-synthase under the conditions of profound expression by the excessive production of nitric oxide. Activation of the L-arginine non-oxidative pathway can limit NO synthesis by inhibiting iNO synthase, as well as by competing for a common substrate. The ratio between L-arginine metabolism pathways depends largely on hypoxia and the development of adaptation. After exposure to hypoxia, arginase activity decreases in young adult rats, while in the old ones – remains at same level as in corresponding control group. As for blood plasma, the increase in the level of urea in it indicates a sufficient adaptation of the body to the effects of acute hypoxia, which does not occur in older rats. Since the content of arginine in the myocardium and blood plasma of control and experimental rats of both age groups is the same and does not change under the influence of hypoxia, we can prognose a sufficient substrate supply for NO-synthase reactions.</p> N. M. Malevych, T. Ya. Yaroshenko Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12237 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 MARKERS OF LYSOSOMAL DAMAGE IN THE COMBINED ACTION OF Κ-CARRAGEENAN AND MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE IN THE EXPERIMENT https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12053 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Research highlights unresolved issues in the study of carrageenans, including the relationship between the physicochemical properties of carrageenan, its effect on digestive proteolysis, colon microbiome, and inflammation; as well as its effects in different risk groups, which indicates the need for further research to determine its possible toxic effects in the case of increasing levels of carrageenan in the human diet, as well as a wide combination of different supplements.</p> <p> <strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to evaluate the indicators of lysosomal damage (acid phosphatase and cathepsin B activity) in the tissues of rats under the combined action of κ-carrageenan and monosodium glutamate.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The study was carried out on 48 white nonlinear male rats, which were divided into 4 groups: control (intact animals), 1 – animals that were intragastrically injected with κ-carrageenan at a dose of 40 mg/kg for 1 month, 2 – animals, which were intragastrically injected sodium glutamate at a dose of 50 mg/kg for 1 month, 3 – animals that were intragastrically injected with carrageenan and sodium glutamate in the above doses. The activity of acid phosphatase and cathexin B in the blood, lungs and liver of rats was determined by standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong> and Discussion.</strong> Significantly higher acid phosphatase activity was found in 1 and 2 experimental groups in the serum, as well as in the liver and lungs of rats, in relation to control. It should be noted the highest values ​​of acid phosphatase activity in animals of the experimental group 3, which were probably higher in the serum (by 90.20 %), as well as in the liver (by 69.60 %) and lungs (by 82.20 %) of rats, relative to control. Significantly higher activity of cathepsin B in experimental groups 1 and 2 in the serum, as well as in the liver and lungs of rats, relative to control. It should be noted the highest values ​​of cathepsin B activity in animals of the experimental group 3, which were probably higher in the serum (97.70 %), as well as in the liver (52.10 %) and lungs (83.10 %) of rats, regarding control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> In the combined action of solutions of κ-carrageenan and monosodium glutamate, the activity of acid phosphatase and cathepsin B in serum (by 90.2 % and 97.7 %), liver (by 69.6 % and 52.1 %) and lungs is likely (by 82.2 % and 83.1 %) of rats increase relative to control, which is also statistically significantly higher against the values ​​of these indicators with separate use of κ-carrageenan, as well as monosodium glutamate.</p> P. I. Buchko, M. I. Marushchak Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12053 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 EFFECT OF CRANIOSKELETAL TRAUMA COMPLICATED WITH BLOOD LOSS ON THE ACTIVITY OF CYTOLYSIS AND ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION IN THE EARLY PERIOD IN RATS WITH DIFFERENT HYPOXIA RESISTANCE https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12238 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Injuries are now considered one of the pressing problems of modern urban society. Its structure is dominated by severe multiple and combined lesions, which are often complicated by multiple organ failure, which becomes the direct cause of death. The work of many authors has shown that the basis of systemic disorders in traumatic illness is the strengthening of cytolysis and endotoxicosis. The formation of cytolysis and endotoxicosis syndrome under conditions of cranioskeletal trauma in animals with different constitutional resistance to hypoxia remains insufficiently studied.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to determine the dynamics of markers of cytolysis and endotoxicosis in cranioskeletal trauma complicated by blood loss in rats with different resistance to hypoxia in the early period of traumatic illness.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The experiments were performed on 148 nonlinear white male rats weighing 180–200 g, which were on the standard diet of the vivarium. Previously, individual resistance to hypoxia was determined in rats and two groups were identified: high- and low-resistant (HR, LR). In animals, cranioskeletal trauma was simulated and combined with acute blood loss. After 1, 3, and 7 days, the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the content of middle mass molecules determined at a wavelength of 280 nm (MМM<sub>280</sub>) were determined in the serum of the liver of animals resistant to hypoxia.</p> <p><strong>Results and </strong><strong>D</strong><strong>iscussion.</strong> In the pathogenesis of cranioskeletal trauma an important place is occupied by the development of cytolysis syndrome and endotoxicosis, which is manifested by an increase in serum activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme ALT and MМM<sub>280</sub> fraction, which reflects the appearance of aromatic amino acids as a result of impaired metabolism. It was found that in emergencies before hypoxia of animals detected violations are greater. Under the conditions of additional modeling of acute blood loss in the range of 20–22 % of the circulating blood volume in the groups of LR and HR of animals, deepening of cytolysis and endotoxicosis processes was noted, especially after 3–7 days of the experiment. Under these conditions, the violation in the serum of ALT activity and the content of the MМM<sub>280</sub> fraction in the group of animals was significantly less than in the animals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Under the conditions of modeling of cranioskeletal trauma in the emergency to hypoxia of animals, the intensification of cytolysis and endotoxicosis is greater than in the group of animals. Disorders in the emergency of animals are exacerbated by additional modeling of acute blood loss.</p> D. A. Sikirinskaya, A. A. Hudyma, I. Ya. Hospodarsky, K. A. Pokhodun Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12238 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 DISORDERS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE METABOLISM AND THE STATE OF THE REDOX-SYSTEM IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH UNDIFFERENTIATED CONNECTIVE TISSUE DYSPLASIA SYNDROME IN PREMATURE BIRTH https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12241 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia syndrome in pregnant women is a common cause of perinatal complications, including premature birth.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to learn the dynamics of connective tissue metabolism, the state of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system and to develop additional criteria for predicting and diagnosing pregnancy complications, premature birth in women with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> 38 pregnant women with UCTD in different stages of gestation (I–III trimesters) and 24 healthy pregnant women of the control group were examined. In addition to general clinical and obstetric examinations, questionnaires were conducted to identify phenotypic markers of connective tissue dysplasia, determine the activity of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems and the state of connective tissue metabolism by blood levels of transforming growth factor β1 and oxyproline.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong> and Discussion.</strong> In pregnant women the frequency of signs of UCTD was determined in 29.3&nbsp;%, the frequency of premature birth was 11.1&nbsp;% in the experimental group against 5.2&nbsp;% in the control. At the same time in pregnant women with signs of UCTD already in the first trimester of gestation there was a significantly higher activity of oxidative processes (the level of MDA increased by 66.5&nbsp;%) against the background of reduced enzymatic (11–15&nbsp;%) and non-enzymatic (30&nbsp;%) antioxidant protection, and catabolic processes prevailed in the connective tissue, as evidenced by the increase in daily excretion of oxyproline. In the II-III&nbsp;trimesters of gestation, these changes increased significantly, which became a trigger for premature birth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> In pregnant women with UCTD syndrome there is a pronounced progressive activation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system insufficient, which is a threat of perinatal complications. When critical levels are reached against the background of the predominance of catabolic processes in connective tissue becomes a trigger for premature birth.</p> V. Yu. Dobrianska Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12241 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 DETERMINATION OF THE MAIN TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE MANUFACTURE OF PESSARIES (VAGINAL SUPPOSITORIES) FOR PREPARATION OF THE BIRTH CANAL BEFORE CHILDBIRTH https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12242 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>One of the urgent problems of modern medical science and practice is the preservation of the health of women of reproductive age. Reducing soft tissue injuries during childbirth, of course, primarily depends on a rationally and carefully carried out childbirth. However, the preparation of the birth canal also plays an important role in this. Rational preparation of the birth canal, taking into account the peculiarities of the histological structure of the vaginal wall, should provide for the use of drugs aimed at increasing the tone of elastic and collagen fibers, which stimulate the formation of glycogen. In addition, the dosage form of the drug used for such purposes plays an important role. Therefore, in the process of developing a drug, we have chosen pessaries (vaginal suppositories). In the composition of the drug, hyaluronic acid with a phytocomplex of CO<sub>2</sub> extracts of calendula, aloe and green tea, which have all the necessary properties to reduce the risk of soft tissue ruptures, were introduced as active pharmaceutical ingredients.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to determine the main technological parameters of the manufacture of pessaries (vaginal suppositories) for the preparation of the birth canal before childbirth with hyaluronic acid and phytocomplex of CO<sub>2</sub> extracts.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>Pharmaco-technological methods were used during the research.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>As a result of the microscopic method of analysis, the solubility of hyaluronic acid in purified water was studied. The structural and mechanical properties of the pessaries were investigated depending on the temperature of the technological process. In addition, the temperature regime for the manufacture of pessaries was set at (40.0±2.0) °C based on the results obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis. In order to determine the cooling temperature of the samples, their resistance to fracture was studied, as a result of which it was established that this stage of making pessaries should be carried out at a temperature of 10–15 °C for 20 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>A study was carried out to determine the main technological parameters for the manufacture of pessaries (vaginal suppositories) for preparing the birth canal before childbirth containing HA and a phytocomplex of CO<sub>2</sub> extracts. A rational route for introducing the API into the dosage form was justified. HA is distributed in the base by the type of emulsion, and CO<sub>2</sub> extracts are distributed by the type of solution. The influence on the quality characteristics of pessaries of such factors as the temperature of manufacture, dosing and cooling of the suppository mass was determined.</p> G. M. Melnik, T. G. Yarnykh, I. V. Herasymova Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12242 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 INFLUENCE OF ACUTE BLOOD LOSS COMPLICATED BY LIMB ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION ON THE DYNAMICS OF GLUTATION ANTIPEROXIDASE INDICATORS IN THE SPLEEN AND ITS CORRECTION WITH CARBACETAM https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12243 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>.</strong> Disruption of the glutathione antiperoxidase system is one of the key mechanisms of acute blood loss and ischemic-reperfusion syndrome. The spleen plays an important role in adaptive-compensatory processes in the conditions of blood loss. However, the state of the glutathione antiperoxidase system in the spleen has not been studied enough. There are no data on the effectiveness under these conditions of carbacetam, which found a pronounced protective effect on the enzyme link of antioxidant protection of the spleen.</p> <p><strong>The </strong><strong>aim</strong><strong> of the study</strong> – to determine the dynamics of the glutathione antiperoxidase system of the spleen in conditions of acute blood loss complicated by ischemia-reperfusion of the limb and to evaluate the effectiveness of correction of the identified disorders by carbacetam.</p> <p><strong>Research</strong> <strong>Methods.</strong> 108 nonlinear male rats weighing 200–220 g were used in the experiments. All experiments were performed under thiopental-sodium anesthesia. In animals, limb ischemia-reperfusion and acute blood loss were simulated and these lesions were combined. In a separate group, the detected disorders were corrected with carbacetam. After 1 and 2 hours, as well as after 1, 7 and 14 days in the spleen of experimental animals was determined the content of reduced glutathione and the activity of glutathione peroxidase.</p> <p><strong>R</strong><strong>esults</strong><strong> and Discussion</strong><strong>.</strong> Modeling of acute blood loss, complicated by ischemia-reperfusion of the limb, in the spleen contributes to the greatest depletion of reduced glutathione&nbsp; and the activity of glutathione peroxidase, starting with 2 h of the experiment. After 1 day, the value of the studied indicators reached a minimum level and was statistically significantly less than in the conditions of modeling only acute blood loss. The use of carbacetam had a protective effect on the content of reduced glutathione in the spleen after 7 days of use, the activity of glutathione peroxidase – after 14 days, which puts carbacetam in a number of promising means of complex therapy of disorders caused by acute blood loss and ischemic-reperfusion syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong> Simulation of acute blood loss complicated by ischemia-reperfusion of the limb leads to a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity in the spleen with a maximum after 1 day of the experiment. The use of carbacetam promotes the protection of disorders of the content of reduced glutathione in the spleen after 7 days of use, glutathione peroxidase activity – after 14 days.</p> І. V. Yavorska Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12243 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 DYNAMICS OF LIPID PEROXIDATION PROCESSES IN CORTEX AND CEREBRAL LAYERS OF THE KIDNEY UNDER THE CONDITION OF BILATERAL GONAD EXTRACTION IN THE PERIOD OF LATER MANIFESTATION OF TRAUMATIC DISEASE https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12244 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Intensification of lipid peroxidation (LPO) is one of the characteristic disorders of cranio-ske­letal injury (CSI). Estrogen levels play an important role in the mechanism of protection against sex in the female body. Due to the increasing frequency of injuries, the risk of skeletal trauma in postmenopausal women increases ­sharply.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to elucidate the role of LPO processes in the cortical and cerebral layers of the kidney in the mechanisms of systemic manifestations of CSI in the late period of traumatic disease in bilateral ovarioectomy.</p> <p><strong>Research</strong> <strong>Methods. </strong>The experiments were performed on 54 nonlinear white female rats weighing 200–220 g. The hypoestrogenic state was performed by surgical removal of the gonads with subsequent simulation of CSI. After 1 and 2 months of the post-traumatic period, the content of diene conjugates (DCs) and reagents for thiobarbituric acid (TBA-active LPO products) was determined in the cortical and cerebral layers of the kidney.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> Complete removal of the gonads after 1 month is accompanied by an intensification of LPO processes in the functional layers of the kidney. In animals without removal of gonads under the conditions of CSI we noted activation of LPO after 1 month of post-traumatic period, followed by normalization after 2 months. In gonadectomized rats, LPO processes remained elevated for 2 months after injury. In the cerebral layer of the kidney, the activity of LPO was significantly higher than in the cortical, and significantly prevailed in gonadectomized rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> In the conditions of removal of gonads in cortical and cerebral layers of a kidney strengthening of LPO is noted. After application of CSI in the conditions of removal of gonads in 1 and 2 months the content of primary and secondary products of LPO increases, while in group of animals without removal of gonads intensity of LPO in a kidney normalizes up second month of the experiment.</p> I. I. Lutsiv, A. A. Hudyma, D. V. Popovych Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12244 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 OXIDATIVE MODIFICATION OF PROTEINS IN RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE UNDER CONDITIONS OF CHRONIC AFFECT WITH HEAVY METALS AND GLYPHOSATE https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12245 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> It is known that the effects of various environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals and organophosphorus compounds, cause various changes in the human body, accompanied by imbalances between oxidation and reduction, the formation of reactive oxygen species, which explains the development of oxidative stress. Heavy metal ions can induce the formation of reactive oxygen species. To date, the correction of violations of free radical and antioxidant processes by the combined action of heavy metals and organophosphorus pesticides remains incompletely studied.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study</strong> – to investigate the effect of lead acetate, copper sulfate and glyphosate in the form of a roundup and the corrective effect of cysteyl-histidyl-tyrosyl-histidyl-isoleucine on oxidative processes in rats of different ages.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The experiments were carried out on laboratory nonlinear white male rats of 3 age groups: immature, sexually mature and old, which were intragastrically injected for 30 days with aqueous solutions of lead acetate, copper sulfate and glyphosate (in the form of Roundup herbicide). For the purpose of correction, on the 21st day, 6 hours after the administration of toxicants, the peptide cysteyl-histidyl-tyrosyl-histidyl-isoleucine was administered for 10 days. Oxidative stress was assessed by the level of oxidatively modified proteins, the content of TBA-active products and diene conjugates in blood serum and liver homogenates.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> It was found that the administration of aqueous solutions of lead acetate, copper sulfate and glyphosate (in the form of Roundup herbicide) in combination with rats is accompanied by activation of oxidation processes in the serum and liver homogenates of the affected animals. Simultaneous administration of the studied xenobiotics to animals of all ages caused an increase in the content of TBA-active products (TBA-AP) and diene conjugates (DC) in blood serum and liver homogenates. Intoxication of copper with sulfate, lead acetate and organophosphorus pesticide was accompanied by imbalance between pro- and antioxidants, the development of oxidative stress, which can cause functional and structural damage to cell membranes and the accumulation of toxic metabolites. When the peptide is used as a correction factor, the content of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products decreases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The administration of the peptide as a corrective factor to rats with toxic liver damage reduces the generation of reactive oxygen species and the content of free radical lipid oxidation products.</p> Ye. B. Dmukhalska, T. Ya. Yaroshenko Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12245 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 STUDY OF THE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF THE HERB BARLEY AND RYE https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12246 <p class="a"><strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;">Introduction. </span></strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;">Amino acids have multi-vector pharmacological activity, so the search for new sources of amino acids and the study of their composition in medicinal plants is relevant.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;">The aim of the study </span></strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;">– to learn the high-quality composition of amino acids and determine their content in the herb of the barley and rye.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;">Research Methods. </span></strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;">The identification and determination of the quantitative content of amino acids was carried out by the method of ion exchange fluid-column chromatography.</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;">Results and Discussion. </span></strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;">In the studied raw materials, the qualitative composition and quantitative content of the dominant amino acids were almost identical. The total content of amino acids in the herb of the bunch of ordinary was 5.988 mg/100 mg, rye – 4.359 mg/100 mg. In the grass, the bunch of ordinary among replaceable amino acids in significant quantities were accumulated: aspartic and glutamic acids and proline (25.63 %, 16.25 % and 12.91 % of the amount of amino acids, respectively), among the essential&nbsp;– lysine (5.00% of the amount amino acids). In the herb of rye content prevailed replaceable amino acids: glutamic acid, proline, asparagic acid (17.88 %, 10.99 %, 10.63 % of the amount of amino acids, respectively), essential – leucine, lysine, phenylalanine (7.14 %, 6.13 %, 4.61 % of the amount of amino acids, respectively). Among the essential amino acids in the herb of the barley and rye in minor quantities methionine were (1.40&nbsp;% and 0.88 % of the amino acid amount, respectively).</span></p> <p class="a"><strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;">Conclusions.</span></strong><span style="letter-spacing: .2pt;"> For the first time, a qualitative composition was studied and the quantitative content of amino acids in the herb of the barley and rye was determined. The content of 18 amino acids was established, of which 7 essential, 8 <strong>–</strong> replaceable and 3 <strong>–</strong> semi-essential. Among the identified amino acids, aspartic and glutamic acids were dominated, proline, leucine, lysine and phenylalanine were contained in significant quantities. The results of the research carried out can be used in the development of new plant medicines based on rye and barley.</span></p> G. S. Tartynska, I. О. Zhuravel, V. S. Kyslychenko, V. V. Hutsol, A. V. Martynov Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12246 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF MONOSACCHARIDES OF LIQUID THYME CREEPING EXTRACT AND SELECTION OF ACCEPTANCE CRITERION https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12247 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;In recent years, there has been a growing scientific interest in the study of polysaccharides in medicinal plant raw materials, which is due to their wide range of pharmacological action. Previous studies have shown that polysaccharides are present in extracts of creeping thyme (CT) obtained with water and solutions with low concentrations of alcohol, after hydrolysis of which monosaccharides have been obtained. Because, the deve­lopment of a mucolytic agent based on a thick extract of emergency and essential oil of thyme involved, first of all, obtaining a liquid extract of emergency, which was obtained by the selected technology, which allowed to preserve and reproduce the analyzed BAS herbs. Therefore, in order to standardize the liquid extract of the state of emergency, it is important to determine not only their qualitative composition, but also the quantitative content, which will allow to choose the appropriate quality indicators and offer acceptability criteria.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– quantitative determination of monosaccharides in liquid extract of СT, selection of appropriate acceptance criteria.</p> <p><strong>Research М</strong><strong>ethods.</strong> Spectrophotometer "Cary-50", liquid extract of creeping thyme, FSЕ: glucose (Fluka), 1&nbsp;% solution of picric acid, 20 % solution of sodium carbonate, 20 %, 40 % solution of sodium hydroxide, dilute hydrochloric acid R.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion. </strong>Quantitative determination of monosaccharides in the liquid extract of СТ was performed by differential spectrophotometry in the visible part of the spectrum by reaction with picric acid. Their content varies within certain limits and is determined by the content in the raw material. Therefore, in order to standardize the liquid extract of СT, you can choose a quantitative quality criterion – the content of reducing monosaccharides, as well as to propose appropriate acceptance criteria – not less than 0.09 % in terms of glucose.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Quantitative determination of reducing monosaccharides in liquid extract of CT is carried out. As a result, their quantitative content was determined and eligibility criteria were proposed.</p> N. O. Zarivna Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12247 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 DYNAMICS OF ANTIOXIDANT-PROOXIDANT BALANCE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ACUTE BLOOD LOSS COMPLICATED BY ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION OF THE LIMB, AND ITS CORRECTION WITH CARBACETAM https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12248 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The spread of terrorism and local armed conflicts has led to an increase in the frequency of gunshot injuries with massive external bleeding from the extremities. Timely application of a hemostatic tourniquet for up to two hours is considered the only way to save life. However, the effect of acute blood loss and ischemia-reperfusion of the limb on the antioxidant-prooxidant balance of the small intestine has not been adequately studied. There is no data on the effectiveness under these conditions of carbacetam, which exhibits antioxidant effects.</p> <p><strong>The aim </strong><strong>of the study</strong> – to elucidate the effect of acute blood loss, complicated by ischemia-reperfusion of the limb, on the antioxidant-prooxidant balance of the small intestine wall and the effectiveness of correction of the revealed disorders with carbacetam.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The experiments were carried out on 108 nonlinear male rats weighing 200–220 g. All animals were divided into five groups: control and four research groups. In thiopental sodium anesthesia in the first experimental group, limb ischemia-reperfusion was simulated, in the second – acute blood loss, in the third – these injuries were combined. In the fourth experimental group of animals with acute blood loss and ischemia-reperfusion of the limb, carbacetam was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 5 mg per kilogram of animal weight. After 1 and 2 h, as well as after 1, 7 and 14 days in the homogenate of the small intestine, the content of reagents in thiobarbituric acid, the activity of catalase were determined, and the antioxidant-prooxidant index (API) was calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> Modeling only limb ischemia-reperfusion led to an increase in the value of API in the small intestine with a maximum after 1 day of the experiment, which indicates the dominance of antioxidant mechanisms in response to a set of systemic disorders that occur in the body during the reperfusion period. Under the influence of acute blood loss, the API value in the small intestine during 1 and 2 h of the experiment increased compensatory compared with the control, but then it sharply decreased and was significantly less than the control up to 14 days. The combination of limb ischemia-reperfusion and acute blood loss resulted in a decrease in the small intestine API value already after 1 hour of the experiment. During the entire observation period, the indicator in this study group was significantly lower than in the groups in which limb ischemia-reperfusion and acute blood loss were separately modeled. The introduction of carbacetam neutralized the prooxidant effect of the studied lesion on the tissue of the small intestine within 7–14 days of use.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Modeling of ischemia-reperfusion of a limb against the background of acute blood loss is accompanied by a decrease in the value of API in the small intestine already from 1 hour of the experiment and during the entire observation period is significantly less than in other experimental groups. The use of carbacetam for 7–14 days of the reperfusion period promotes an increase in the value of API in the small intestine, which indicates the antioxidant effect of the drug under conditions of the modeled pathology.</p> V. V. Strelbytska, A. A. Hudyma Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12248 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 THE INFLUENCE OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS ON THE COURSE OF THE IMMUNE PROCESS IN RATS WITH ACUTE PERIODONTITIS https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12259 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Methods of regenerative therapy are beginning to be widely used in medicine. Treatment of periodontitis is a complex task of dentistry, therefore, there is a search for new methods that would be effective in this pathology.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study </strong>– to learn the effect of stem cells on the state of cellular and humoral immunity in conditions of experimental periodontitis.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods.</strong> The study was carried out on white out bred male rats weighing 180–200 g. Periodontitis was caused by the introduction of lipopolysaccharide into the gum tissue at 40 microliters (1 mg/ml) every other day for 14 days. On days 1, 7, 14, and 21 after the last LPS injection, the rats were decapitated under thiopental anesthesia (50 mg/kg). Material from intact animals served as control. MSCs were obtained from pregnant females, approximately on the 21–24th day of pregnancy. An enzymatic method was used to obtain viable MSCs. The cultivation was carried out in a CO<sub>2</sub> incubator at a temperature of 37 °C and a CO<sub>2</sub> concentration of 5 %. Stem cells were injected into the gum of rats with a single injection at the rate of 1 million cells per 1 kg of body weight. To maximize the preservation of cell viability, MSCs were injected within 30 min after the suspension was obtained. Studies of the cellular (CD4 +, CD8 +, CD3 +, CD20 +) immune system were performed by immunofluorescence method using monoclonal antibodies to CD4 + -, CD8 + -, CD3 + -and CD20 + -antigens of rats conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) produced by “Beckman Coulter” (USA). Immunoreactivity of the organism was studied by the content of serum immunoglobulins A, M, G by the method of solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a set of reagents "eBioscience, Inc" using the analyzer "StatFax". The obtained digital data were processed by the method of variation statistics. The significance of differences in the compared parameters between different samples was determined by using the Student's t-test (with a normal distribution of results) or Mann-Whitney (in the case of a distribution that was not normal).</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion.</strong> Under the conditions of modeling of acute periodontitis, the production of serum immunoglobulins increased significantly in the initial stages of the experiment with a subsequent decrease to the 21st day. Under the conditions of MSC injection, the production of immunoglobulins was less intense than in animals without correction. The level of CD4 + cells in animals with acute periodontitis increased significantly in the initial stages, with a subsequent decrease to the 21st day. After the injection of MSC, the level of CD4 + cells was lower and on the 1st day was 130.8 % of healthy animals, which was 88.6 % of the level of animals that were not corrected. By the day 21, CD4 + cell levels continued to decline and did not differ significantly from animals without pathology. The dynamics of CD8 + cell levels were similar, but the growth was less than that of CD4 +. The dynamics of the CD4 + / CD8 + regulatory index indicates a significant increase in animals with acute periodontitis, with a further decrease to the 21st day The content of CD3 + and CD20 + cells in the serum of animals with acute periodontitis on the 1st day significantly exceeded that of intact animals with a further decrease to the 21st day. The correction with the use of MSCs was accompanied by a less intense increase in the level of CD3 + and CD20 + cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In animals with acute periodontitis there is a significant increase in CD4 + lymphocytes, a violation of the ratio of major subpopulations of lymphocytes (CD4 + and CD8 +), accompanied by a significant increase in the immunoregulatory index, and dysfunction of the humoral immune system, manifested by blood imbalance and reducing the resistance of the humoral part of the immune system. The use of MSCs significantly compensates for the imbalance caused by the pathological process of the immune system, contributing to the normalization of the immunoregulatory index and the main classes of immunoglobulins.</p> H. T. Bigulyak, A. I. Dovgalyuk, I. M. Klishch, M.-M. O. Stetsevych Copyright (c) 2021 Medical and Clinical Chemistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ojs.tdmu.edu.ua/index.php/MCC/article/view/12259 Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300