GENETIC MARKERS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

  • V. A. Musiienko І. HORBACHEVSKY TERNOPIL NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
  • M. I. Marushchak І. HORBACHEVSKY TERNOPIL NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
Keywords: genetic markers, type 2 diabetes, gene polymorphism

Abstract

Introduction. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global health problem due to rapid cultural and social change, aging of the population, increasing urbanization, changing nutrition, and reduced physical activity. Some risk factors can be controlled, such as diet and obesity, while others, such as sex, age, genetics, are beyond our control. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is believed to be a polygenic disorder that develops through a complex interaction between several genes and environmental factors. The first evidence of the role of genetic markers in the development of type 2 diabetes was twin studies in large families conducted in the second half of the XX century. The first candidate genes were identified for rare forms of diabetes (neonatal, mitochondrial CD, MODY). There are currently many genetic markers for T2D known, but the pathogenetic link between most of them remains to be confirmed. However, this is only a small fraction of the genetic component of the disease. The pace of research into the complex genetics of T2D has been impressive over the last decade. Currently, there are over 300 loci that are closely related to T2D. The most studied and those of considerable scientific interest are the KCNJ11, TCF7L2, PPARG, IRS1, PON 1, SLC30A8, FTO and TNF-alpha genes. It is worth noting that the role of genes in the pathogenesis of diabetes is ambiguous and needs further investigation.

The aim of the study – to analyze current literary sources about genetic markers that are involved in the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions. Analysis of literature sources substantiates the relevance of the study of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Defining the role of gene polymorphism in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes will open the way for new approaches to the diagnosis, stratification, monitoring, prevention and treatment of this disease.

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Published
2020-01-30
How to Cite
Musiienko, V. A., & Marushchak, M. I. (2020). GENETIC MARKERS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES. Medical and Clinical Chemistry, (4), 184-191. https://doi.org/10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2019.v.i4.10688
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