IODINE CONTENT IN WHITE RATS THYROID GLANDS IN ORGANIC AND INORGANIC IODINE ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF SUBCLINICAL HYPERTHYROIDISM
Introduction. Iodine as a component of thyroid hormones is accumulated in the thyroid gland. This permits to study the thyroid gland functional activity by focusing on the iodine content in its tissue.
The aim of the study – to learn the effect of organic and inorganic iodine on its content in the thyroid gland under the conditions of subclinical hyperthyroidism.
Research Methods. White non-linear male rats (n=90) with an initial body weight of 140–160 g were kept on a iodine-deficient isocaloric starch-casein diet with a food mixture and consumed minimally active, moderate and large doses of iodine (21, 50, 100 μg/kg body weight) with potassium iodide (inorganic iodine) or iodine-protein preparation made of the Black Sea red algae Phyllophora nervosa (DС.) Grev (organic iodine) within the period of 30 days. The iodine content in the thyroid tissue (absolute, relative, and per 100 g of body weight) was determined using the Winkler procedure principle in J. F. Sadusk, Jr., & E. G. Ball.
Results and Discussion. The iodine content in the thyroid glands depended on its chemical nature and the dose. Consumption of 21 μg/kg body weight of organic iodine caused a sharp increase of its content in the thyroid glands; with the consumed dose increase, the organ’s iodine concentration ability decreased. The iodine content in the thyroid gland when consuming inorganic iodine in the dose of 21, 50 and 100 μg/kg body weight, was significantly less than in consuming the similar amounts of organic iodine. The consumption of the large (100 μg/kg body weight) dose of iodine in the both iodine-containing substances was accompanied by a decrease of the iodine content in the thyroid gland tissue.
Conclusions. In the conditions of subclinical hyperthyroidism, the intake of organic iodine increases the iodine content in the thyroid gland tissue, the effect of inorganic iodine being less pronounced. The best prerequisites for the thyroid gland functional activity growth are the intake of a minimal dose (21 μg/kg body weight) of organic iodine and a minimal and moderate dose (21 and 50 μg/kg body weight) of inorganic iodine. The minimal functional activity of the thyroid gland can be expected in rats which consumed a large dose of organic and inorganic iodine (100 μg/kg body weight).
Panneels, V., Juvenal, G., Boeynaems, J.M., Dumont, J.E. & Van Sande J. (2009). Iodide effects on the thyroid: biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and clinical effects of iodide in the thyroid. Preedy, V.R., Burrow, G.N., Watson, R.R. (Eds.). Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine: Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects (pp. 303-314). New York: Academic Press.
Kravchenko, V.I. & Medvedev B.K. (2018). Biolohichna rol yodu ta yodna nedostatnist yak patohenetychnyi faktor vynyknennia tyreoidnoi patolohii u vahitnykh ta yii profilaktyka [The biological role of iodine and iodine deficiency as pathogenetic factor of thyroid pathology in pregnant women and its prevention]. Mizhnarodnyi endokrynolohichnyi zhurnal – International Journal of Endocrinology, 14 (2), 111-118 [in Ukrainian].
Moini J., Pereira, K., & Samsam, M. (2020). Iodine and thyroid hormones. Epidemiology of Thyroid Disorders. Philadelphia: Elsevier.
Alves, M.L.D. (2019). The thyroid gland. Annals Thyroid Res., 5 (1), 185-187.
Al-Tamimi, H.J., Al-Dawood, A., & Mahasneh, Z. (2019).The Wolff–Chaikoff effect ameliorates heat stress in rats. Anim. Biotelemetry, 7, 8.
Chung, H. R. (2014). Iodine and thyroid function. Ann. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab., 19 (1), 8-12.
Lúcia, M., & Navarro, A.M. (2019). About iodide: a friendly and necessary ion. Annals. Thyroid. Res, 5(3), 223-228.
Barbaro, D., Orrù, B., & Unfer, V. (2019). Iodine and myo-inositol: a novel promising combination for iodine deficiency. Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne), 10, 457.
Mendoza, A., & Hollenberg, A.N. (2017). New insights into thyroid hormone action. Pharmacol. Ther., 173, 135-145.
Candelotti, E., Vito, P.D., Ahmed, R.G., Luly, P., Davis, P.J., Pedersen, J.Z., ... Incerpi, S. (2015). Thyroid hormones crosstalk with growth factors: Old facts and new hypotheses. Immun. Endoc. & Metab. Agents in Med. Chem, 15 (1), 71-85.
van der Spek, A.H., Fliers, E. & Boelen A. (2017). The classic pathways of thyroid hormone metabolism. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 458, 29-38.
Bhagavan, N.V., & Ha, C.-E. (2018). Endocrine metabolism IV: Thyroid gland. In Essentials of Medical Biochemistry. 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press.
Cicatiello, A.G., Di Girolamo, D., & Dentice, M. (2018). Metabolic effects of the intracellular regulation of thyroid hormone: old players, new concepts. Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne), 9, 474.
Mullur, R., Liu, Y.-Y., & Brent, G.A. (2014). Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism. Physiol. Rev., 94 (2), 355-382.
Gorodetskaya, I.V., Gusakova, E.A., & Evdokimova, O.V. (2016). Perifericheskie mekhanizmy stressprotektornogo effekta yodsoderzhashchikh gormonov shchitovidnoy zhelezy [Peripheral mechanisms of the stress-protective effect of iodine-containing thyroid hormones]. Vestnik VGMU – Journal of Vitebsk State Medical University, 15 (6), 41-53 [in Russian].
Melse-Boonstra, A., & Jaiswal, N. (2010). Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development. Best Pract. & Res.Clin. Endocrinol. & Metab, 24 (1), 29-38.
Péter, F., & Muzsnai, A. (2011). Congenital disorders of the thyroid: hypo/hyper. Pediatr. Clin. North Am., 58 (5), 1099-1115.
Samsam, M. (2020). Hyperthyroidism. In J. Moini, K. Pereira & M. Samsam, Epidemiology of Thyroid Disorders. Philadelphia: Elsevier.
Mamenko, M.Ye. (2013). Yodnyi defitsyt ta yododefitsytni zakhvoriuvannia (lektsiia) [Iodine deficiency and iodine deficiency disorders (lecture)]. Perinatologiya i pediatriya – Perinatology and Pediatrics, 1, 97-105 [in Ukrainian].
Bezrukov, O.F. (2011). Vozmozhnosti i perspektivy profilaktiki yodnoy nedostatochnosti (obzor) [Possibilities and prospectives of iodine insufficiency prophylaxis (a review)]. Krymskyi terapevtychnyi zhurnal – Crimean Journal of Internal Diseases, 2, 4-7 [in Russian].
Bolshakova, L.S., Litvinova, E.V., Kuzina, A.V., Lisitsyn, A.B., & Chernuha, I.M. (2013). Issledovanie profіlakticheskoy effektіvnosti biologicheski aktivnoy dobavki Bioyod [Study of prophylactic effectiveness of the biologically active additives Bioiodine]. Fundamentalnyye issledovaniya – Fundamental Researches, 10/11, 2401-2404 [in Russian].
Kopchak, N.H., Pokotylo, О.S., Kukhtyn, M.D., & Koval, M.I. (2017). Vplyv yodu na pokaznyky lipidnoho profiliu krovi shchuriv riznoho viku pry eksperymentalnomu ozhyrinni [Influence of iodine on the indicators of lipid profile of rats’ blood of different age in experimental obesity]. Medychna ta klinichna khimiia – Medical and Clinical Chemistry, 19 (4), 123-128 [in Ukrainian].
Ryabukha, O.І. (2017). Ultrastrukturni osoblyvosti syntetychnoi diialnosi folikuliarnykh tyrotsytiv pry pryimanni orhanichnoho yodu v umovakh alimentarnoho yododefitsytu [Ultrastructural features of the follicular thyrocytes’ synthetic activity while taking organic iodine under conditions of alimentary iodine deficiency]. Visnyk problem biolohii i medytsyny – Bulletin of Problems in Biology and Medicine, 4, 2(140), 134-139 [in Ukrainian].
Ryabukha, O.І. (2017). Doslidzennia syntetychnoi diialnosti folikuliarnykh tyrotsytiv pry pryimanni neorhanichnoho yodu v umovakh alimentarnoho yododefitsytu [Study of the follicular thyrocytes’ synthetic activity while taking inorganic iodine under conditions of alimentary iodine deficiency]. Visnyk problem biolohii i medytsyny – Bulletin of Problems in Biology and Medicine, 4, 3(141), 218-223 [in Ukrainian].
Ryabukha, O.I. (2018). Do pytannia zastosuvannia pry hipotyreozi neorhanichnoho ta orhanichnoho yodu (ohliad) [To the problem of application in hypothyrosis inorganic and organic iodine (a review)]. Aktualni problemy transportnoi medytsyny – Actual Problems of Transport Medicine, 2 (52), 7-21 [in Ukrainian].
Ryabukha, O., & Dronyuk, I. (2019). Applying regression analysis to study the interdependence of thyroid, adrenal glands, liver, and body weight in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. CEUR Workshop Proc., 2488, 155-164.