General and local risk factors for the occurrence of major dental diseases in children with oligophrenia

T. D. Zabolotny, G. Z. Dutko

Abstract


Prevention of major dental diseases in children is one of the most urgent problems of dentistry in childhood. This is especially true in the category of children with central nervous system (CNS) disorders. It is known that deviations in the psychological development of children are often accompanied by somatic diseases. The literature highlights the dependence of dental status on somatic health.

The aim of the study – to conduct an analysis of the somatic status of children with oligophrenic patients.

Materials and Methods. The data presented during the examination of 263 children aged 12–18 years. The choice of this age group was subordinated to WHO (1997) requirements to obtain a reliable characterization of the state of solid dental tissues (group of children 12 years old) and periodontal tissues (group of children 15 years). A group of children 18 years old was selected to study the disease of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues in the dynamics. Dental examination of this contingent of children was carried out at the psycho-neurological dispensary of the city of Lviv. The diagnosis of "oligophrenia" was established by a specialist of this specialty (psychiatrist). The control group included 99 students from several secondary schools in Lviv, of the same age, without psychoneurological abnormalities.

Results and Discussion. Having conducted a detailed analysis of these indicators among the children of the main group, we have established their direct dependence on the severity of the underlying disease. According to the results of the research, in the main group there is a high percentage of children who were ill with infectious diseases (50 ± 3.9 %), indicating a decrease in the protective immune forces of the organism. Prevalent in the main group of children are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. A significant number of children with oligophrenia who had a respiratory tract pathology (34.76 ± 3.72 %) were found. In addition to the general factors contributing to the occurrence of pathological processes in the tissues of the oral cavity, there are local, such as: anomalies of bite, dental arches, buckling of teeth, and the like.

Conclusions. Some general and local risk factors for dental diseases characteristic of children with oligophrenia have been identified: pathological changes in the respiratory system (34.76 ± 3.72 %) and the gastrointestinal tract (32.32 ± 3.65 %) are more frequent than in mentally healthy children. Oral respiration is on the first place of the local factor of the occurrence of dental diseases in this contingent of children (59.15 ± 3.84 %). Particular weight is occupied by buccal pathology and teething brittleness (40.85 ± 3.84 %). We have also established the dependence of the general state of health of children-oligophrenic patients on the degree of reduction of their intelligence.


Keywords


children with oligophrenia; basic dental diseases; somatic state.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11603/2311-9624.2017.2.7937

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